Pest Categorisation of Bretziella Fagacearum. Bragard, C.; Caffier, D.; Candresse, T.; Chatzivassiliou, E.; Dehnen-Schmutz, K.; Gilioli, G.; Grégoire, J.; Jaques Miret, J. A.; Jeger, M.; MacLeod, A.; Navajas Navarro, M.; Niere, B.; Parnell, S.; Potting, R.; Rafoss, T.; Rossi, V.; Urek, G.; Van Bruggen, A.; Van der Werf, W.; West, J.; and Winter, S. 16(2):e05185+.
Pest Categorisation of Bretziella Fagacearum [link]Paper  doi  abstract   bibtex   
Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Plant Health (PLH) Panel performed a pest categorisation of Bretziella fagacearum, a well-defined and distinguishable fungal species of the family Ceratocystidaceae. The species was moved from the genus Ceratocystis to a new genus Bretziella following phylogenetic analysis of the species and its close relatives. The former species name Ceratocystis fagacearum is used in the Council Directive 2000/29/EC. The pathogen is regulated in Annex IAI as a harmful organism whose introduction into the EU is banned. B. fagacearum is only reported from the USA, where it causes a wilt disease on Quercus spp. Other hosts are reported based on inoculation trials, although Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima) is reported to be naturally infected. No North American oak species has been found to be immune to the disease. The European oak species Quercus robur, Quercus petraea and Quercus pubescens were found to be susceptible in inoculation experiments. The pest could enter the EU via wood (with and without bark, including wood packaging material), plants for planting and cut branches. Hosts and favourable climatic conditions are common in the EU, thus facilitating establishment. The pest would be able to spread following establishment by means of root grafts, insect vectors and movement of wood, plants for planting and other means. The pest introduction would have impacts in woodland and plantations, as oak wilt disease is often lethal in a short period of time. Wood treatment (debarking, kiln drying, fumigation), prompt removal of affected trees and creating root-free zones between affected and healthy stands are available control measures. The main knowledge gaps concern (i) the survival of the fungus in wood during transport and the association with propagation material, (ii) the presence of suitable vectors in Europe and (iii) the relative susceptibility of the oak species native to Europe under natural conditions. The criteria assessed by the Panel for consideration as a potential quarantine pest are met. For regulated non-quarantine pests, the criterion on the pest presence in the EU is not met. [Excerpt: Conclusions] [...] [::Identity of the pest] The identity of the pest as a species is clear. [] [...] [] The recent change in name from Ceratocystis fagacearum to Bretziella fagacearum may take time for acceptance by the scientific community. [...] [::Absence/presence of the pest in the EU territory] The pest is not reported to be present in the EU [] [...] [] There are no records from EU MSs available to the Panel of the absence of the pathogen other than from Lithuania, the Netherlands and Slovenia [...] [::Regulatory status] B. fagacearum is regulated by Council Directive 2000/29/EC (Annex IAI, as Ceratocystis fagacearum) as a harmful organism whose introduction into and spread within all Member States shall be banned. [] [...] [::Pest potential for entry, establishment and spread in the EU territory] Entry: the pest could enter the EU via wood (with and without bark), isolated bark, plants for planting and cut branches. [] Establishment: hosts and favourable climatic conditions are widespread in the risk assessment (RA) area. [] Spread: the pest would be able to spread following establishment by various means, i.e. insects, root grafts and movement of infected wood and plants for planting. [] [...] [] There is uncertainty about the survival of the fungus in wood during transport and the association with propagation material. [] A knowledge gap is the presence of suitable vectors in Europe. [] There is a lack of knowledge on mycelial mat formation in European oak species affecting the spread. [] It is not known to what extent the limited (compared to the USA) distribution of red oak species in Europe would restrict the spread rate of the disease. [...] [::Potential for consequences in the EU territory] The pest introduction would have economic and environmental impacts in woodlands and plantations. [] [...] [] There is uncertainty about the relative susceptibility level under natural conditions in European locations of the various oak species native to Europe. [...] [::Available measures] Wood treatment (debarking, kiln drying, fumigation), prompt removal of affected trees and creating root-free zones between affected and healthy stands are available measures to reduce the risk of entry, establishment and spread. [] [...] [] Production of plants for planting in pest-free areas can prevent pest presence on plants for planting. [] [...] [] It is uncertain how effective chemical control in nurseries could be and whether it might just mask symptoms, hence allowing the movement of the pathogen via the trade in plants for planting. [] The effectiveness of debarking as wood treatment is uncertain, given that B. fagacearum can be isolated from sawn lumber up to 24 weeks after sawing. [...] [::Conclusion on pest categorisation] The criteria assessed by the Panel for consideration as a potential quarantine pest are met. [] [...] [] The criterion on the pest presence in the EU is not met. [...] [::Aspects of assessment to focus on/scenarios to address in future if appropriate] The main knowledge gaps concern (i) the survival of the fungus in wood (with and without bark) during transport and the association with propagation material, (ii) the presence of suitable vectors in Europe and (iii) the relative susceptibility level under natural conditions in European locations of the oak species native to Europe. [...]
@article{bragardPestCategorisationBretziella2018,
  title = {Pest Categorisation of {{Bretziella}} Fagacearum},
  author = {Bragard, Claude and Caffier, David and Candresse, Thierry and Chatzivassiliou, Elisavet and Dehnen-Schmutz, Katharina and Gilioli, Gianni and Grégoire, Jean-Claude and Jaques Miret, Josep A. and Jeger, Michael and MacLeod, Alan and Navajas Navarro, Maria and Niere, Björn and Parnell, Stephen and Potting, Roel and Rafoss, Trond and Rossi, Vittorio and Urek, Gregor and Van Bruggen, Ariena and Van der Werf, Wopke and West, Jonathan and Winter, Stephan},
  date = {2018-02},
  journaltitle = {EFSA Journal},
  volume = {16},
  pages = {e05185+},
  issn = {1831-4732},
  doi = {10.2903/j.efsa.2018.5185},
  url = {https://doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2018.5185},
  abstract = {Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Plant Health (PLH) Panel performed a pest categorisation of Bretziella fagacearum, a well-defined and distinguishable fungal species of the family Ceratocystidaceae. The species was moved from the genus Ceratocystis to a new genus Bretziella following phylogenetic analysis of the species and its close relatives. The former species name Ceratocystis fagacearum is used in the Council Directive 2000/29/EC. The pathogen is regulated in Annex IAI as a harmful organism whose introduction into the EU is banned. B. fagacearum is only reported from the USA, where it causes a wilt disease on Quercus spp. Other hosts are reported based on inoculation trials, although Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima) is reported to be naturally infected. No North American oak species has been found to be immune to the disease. The European oak species Quercus robur, Quercus petraea and Quercus pubescens were found to be susceptible in inoculation experiments. The pest could enter the EU via wood (with and without bark, including wood packaging material), plants for planting and cut branches. Hosts and favourable climatic conditions are common in the EU, thus facilitating establishment. The pest would be able to spread following establishment by means of root grafts, insect vectors and movement of wood, plants for planting and other means. The pest introduction would have impacts in woodland and plantations, as oak wilt disease is often lethal in a short period of time. Wood treatment (debarking, kiln drying, fumigation), prompt removal of affected trees and creating root-free zones between affected and healthy stands are available control measures. The main knowledge gaps concern (i) the survival of the fungus in wood during transport and the association with propagation material, (ii) the presence of suitable vectors in Europe and (iii) the relative susceptibility of the oak species native to Europe under natural conditions. The criteria assessed by the Panel for consideration as a potential quarantine pest are met. For regulated non-quarantine pests, the criterion on the pest presence in the EU is not met.

[Excerpt: Conclusions] [...] [::Identity of the pest] The identity of the pest as a species is clear. [] [...] [] The recent change in name from Ceratocystis fagacearum to Bretziella fagacearum may take time for acceptance by the scientific community. [...]

[::Absence/presence of the pest in the EU territory] The pest is not reported to be present in the EU [] [...] [] There are no records from EU MSs available to the Panel of the absence of the pathogen other than from Lithuania, the Netherlands and Slovenia [...]

[::Regulatory status] B. fagacearum is regulated by Council Directive 2000/29/EC (Annex IAI, as Ceratocystis fagacearum) as a harmful organism whose introduction into and spread within all Member States shall be banned. [] [...]

[::Pest potential for entry, establishment and spread in the EU territory] Entry: the pest could enter the EU via wood (with and without bark), isolated bark, plants for planting and cut branches.

[] Establishment: hosts and favourable climatic conditions are widespread in the risk assessment (RA) area.

[] Spread: the pest would be able to spread following establishment by various means, i.e. insects, root grafts and movement of infected wood and plants for planting. [] [...]

[] There is uncertainty about the survival of the fungus in wood during transport and the association with propagation material.

[] A knowledge gap is the presence of suitable vectors in Europe.

[] There is a lack of knowledge on mycelial mat formation in European oak species affecting the spread.

[] It is not known to what extent the limited (compared to the USA) distribution of red oak species in Europe would restrict the spread rate of the disease. [...]

[::Potential for consequences in the EU territory] The pest introduction would have economic and environmental impacts in woodlands and plantations. [] [...] [] There is uncertainty about the relative susceptibility level under natural conditions in European locations of the various oak species native to Europe. [...]

[::Available measures] Wood treatment (debarking, kiln drying, fumigation), prompt removal of affected trees and creating root-free zones between affected and healthy stands are available measures to reduce the risk of entry, establishment and spread. [] [...]

[] Production of plants for planting in pest-free areas can prevent pest presence on plants for planting. [] [...]

[] It is uncertain how effective chemical control in nurseries could be and whether it might just mask symptoms, hence allowing the movement of the pathogen via the trade in plants for planting.

[] The effectiveness of debarking as wood treatment is uncertain, given that B. fagacearum can be isolated from sawn lumber up to 24 weeks after sawing. [...]

[::Conclusion on pest categorisation] The criteria assessed by the Panel for consideration as a potential quarantine pest are met. [] [...]

[] The criterion on the pest presence in the EU is not met. [...]

[::Aspects of assessment to focus on/scenarios to address in future if appropriate] The main knowledge gaps concern (i) the survival of the fungus in wood (with and without bark) during transport and the association with propagation material, (ii) the presence of suitable vectors in Europe and (iii) the relative susceptibility level under natural conditions in European locations of the oak species native to Europe. [...]},
  keywords = {*imported-from-citeulike-INRMM,~INRMM-MiD:c-14539269,bretziella-fagacearum,ceratocystis-fagacearum,ceratocystis-spp,disturbances,efsa,efsa-scientific-opinion,europe,forest-pests,plant-pests,quercus-petraea,quercus-pubescens,quercus-robur},
  number = {2}
}
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