Organophosphorus flame retardants (PFRs) and plasticizers in house and car dust and the influence of electronic equipment. Brandsma, S. H.; de Boer, J.; van Velzen, M. J. M.; and Leonards, P. E. G. Chemosphere.
Organophosphorus flame retardants (PFRs) and plasticizers in house and car dust and the influence of electronic equipment [link]Paper  doi  abstract   bibtex   
All nine PFRs studied were detected in house and car dust from the Netherlands with the exception of tris(butyl) phosphate (TNBP) and tris(isobutyl) phosphate (TIBP) in car dust. Tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBOEP, median 22 μg g−1) was dominant in house dust collected around and on electronics followed by tris(2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate (TCIPP, median 1.3 μg g−1), tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP, median 1.3 μg g−1) and tris(phenyl) phosphate (TPHP, median 0.8 μg g−1). Levels of TPHP and tris(methylphenyl) phosphate (TMPP, also known as TCP) in house dust on electronics were significantly higher than in house dust collected around electronics, suggesting that electronic equipment has limited contribution to the PFR levels in house dust, with the exception of TPHP and TMPP. Car dust was dominated by tris(1,3-dichloroisopropyl) phosphate (TDCIPP) with the highest levels found in dust collected from the car seats (1100 μg g−1). The mean TDCIPP and TCIPP levels observed in car dust were significantly higher than the levels observed in dust collected around electronics. Significantly higher mean TMPP levels in dust taken from car seats were found compared to dust collected around the equipment (p < 0.05). This is probably influenced by the use of TDCIPP, TCIPP in polyurethane foam (car seats) and the use of TMPP as plasticizer in car interiors. Worldwide four PFR patterns were observed in house dust. The PFR pattern in the Netherlands of TDCIPP, TMPP, TCEP, TCIPP and TPHP in house dust is comparable to the pattern found in six other countries, which may point to identical sources of these PFRs in the indoor environment. However, the PFR levels between the countries and within countries showed high variation.
@article{brandsma_organophosphorus_nodate,
	title = {Organophosphorus flame retardants ({PFRs}) and plasticizers in house and car dust and the influence of electronic equipment},
	issn = {0045-6535},
	url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0045653514002409},
	doi = {10.1016/j.chemosphere.2014.02.036},
	abstract = {All nine PFRs studied were detected in house and car dust from the Netherlands with the exception of tris(butyl) phosphate (TNBP) and tris(isobutyl) phosphate (TIBP) in car dust. Tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBOEP, median 22 μg g−1) was dominant in house dust collected around and on electronics followed by tris(2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate (TCIPP, median 1.3 μg g−1), tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP, median 1.3 μg g−1) and tris(phenyl) phosphate (TPHP, median 0.8 μg g−1). Levels of TPHP and tris(methylphenyl) phosphate (TMPP, also known as TCP) in house dust on electronics were significantly higher than in house dust collected around electronics, suggesting that electronic equipment has limited contribution to the PFR levels in house dust, with the exception of TPHP and TMPP.

Car dust was dominated by tris(1,3-dichloroisopropyl) phosphate (TDCIPP) with the highest levels found in dust collected from the car seats (1100 μg g−1). The mean TDCIPP and TCIPP levels observed in car dust were significantly higher than the levels observed in dust collected around electronics. Significantly higher mean TMPP levels in dust taken from car seats were found compared to dust collected around the equipment (p \&lt; 0.05). This is probably influenced by the use of TDCIPP, TCIPP in polyurethane foam (car seats) and the use of TMPP as plasticizer in car interiors.

Worldwide four PFR patterns were observed in house dust. The PFR pattern in the Netherlands of TDCIPP, TMPP, TCEP, TCIPP and TPHP in house dust is comparable to the pattern found in six other countries, which may point to identical sources of these PFRs in the indoor environment. However, the PFR levels between the countries and within countries showed high variation.},
	urldate = {2014-06-28TZ},
	journal = {Chemosphere},
	author = {Brandsma, Sicco H. and de Boer, Jacob and van Velzen, Martin J. M. and Leonards, Pim E. G.},
	keywords = {Car dust, Electronic equipment, House dust, Plasticizers}
}
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