How do crossmodal correspondences and multisensory processes relate to synesthesia?. Brang, D. & Ramachandran, V. S. Elsevier Inc., 2019. Publication Title: Multisensory Perception: From Laboratory to Clinic
How do crossmodal correspondences and multisensory processes relate to synesthesia? [link]Paper  doi  abstract   bibtex   
Synesthesia is a perceptual phenomenon in which stimulation of one sensory modality evokes additional (usually) sensory experiences in an unrelated modality (e.g., sounds evoking colors). Much has been written about the definition of synesthesia, but as it remains a behaviorally defined phenomenon, definitional requirements are premature at this early stage (indeed, precision of word use often follows, rather than precedes, conceptual understanding). Synesthesia is thought to arise from either increased connectivity or reduced inhibition between associated sensory areas that usually do not interact. While the condition is typically studied in individuals who experience developmental variants of the condition, nonsynesthetes can experience analogous sensations via hallucinogens or as a result of sensory deprivation,1 raising the possibility that synesthesia exists as a latent feature in all individuals. Research has long sought to identify the relationship between synesthesia and more common multisensory interactions, including crossmodal correspondences (commonly agreed upon multisensory associations, such as small, white objects pairing with high-pitched sounds). In this chapter we review evidence both in support of and in opposition to models relating synesthesia and crossmodal correspondences, and suggest future research to distinguish between them. As a first approximation, we note that idiopathic synesthesia often involves apparently arbitrary correspondences (e.g., the color blue and the number 5 have nothing in common with one another) whereas multisensory associations usually “make sense” (e.g., an ameboid shape and a jagged shape resemble their auditory counterparts, the pseudowords bouba and kiki, respectively). Yet as we shall see, this distinction is not always true.
@book{brang_how_2019,
	title = {How do crossmodal correspondences and multisensory processes relate to synesthesia?},
	isbn = {978-0-12-812492-5},
	url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-812492-5.00012-7},
	abstract = {Synesthesia is a perceptual phenomenon in which stimulation of one sensory modality evokes additional (usually) sensory experiences in an unrelated modality (e.g., sounds evoking colors). Much has been written about the definition of synesthesia, but as it remains a behaviorally defined phenomenon, definitional requirements are premature at this early stage (indeed, precision of word use often follows, rather than precedes, conceptual understanding). Synesthesia is thought to arise from either increased connectivity or reduced inhibition between associated sensory areas that usually do not interact. While the condition is typically studied in individuals who experience developmental variants of the condition, nonsynesthetes can experience analogous sensations via hallucinogens or as a result of sensory deprivation,1 raising the possibility that synesthesia exists as a latent feature in all individuals. Research has long sought to identify the relationship between synesthesia and more common multisensory interactions, including crossmodal correspondences (commonly agreed upon multisensory associations, such as small, white objects pairing with high-pitched sounds). In this chapter we review evidence both in support of and in opposition to models relating synesthesia and crossmodal correspondences, and suggest future research to distinguish between them. As a first approximation, we note that idiopathic synesthesia often involves apparently arbitrary correspondences (e.g., the color blue and the number 5 have nothing in common with one another) whereas multisensory associations usually “make sense” (e.g., an ameboid shape and a jagged shape resemble their auditory counterparts, the pseudowords bouba and kiki, respectively). Yet as we shall see, this distinction is not always true.},
	publisher = {Elsevier Inc.},
	author = {Brang, David and Ramachandran, Vilayanur S.},
	year = {2019},
	doi = {10.1016/B978-0-12-812492-5.00012-7},
	note = {Publication Title: Multisensory Perception: From Laboratory to Clinic},
	keywords = {Crossmodal, Gerstmann syndrome, Grapheme, Sensory deprivation, Synesthesia},
}

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