Plant Parameter Values for Models in Temperate Climates. Breuer, L.; Eckhardt, K.; and Frede, H. 169(2-3):237–293.
Plant Parameter Values for Models in Temperate Climates [link]Paper  doi  abstract   bibtex   
Ecological, and especially hydrological models used to assess the effects of land cover changes require various input parameters for plants. Regional model applications rely on detailed information about the properties of the vegetation, especially if process-based approaches are chosen. As raising acceptable data is a time consuming issue, scientists often use globally approximated plant parameter ranges, rather than considering published data sets. The plant parameters summarised in this overview, i.e. albedo, interception capacity, maximum leaf area index, rooting depth, plant height and stomatal conductance, can be used as data for a wide range of published ecological and hydrological models. We concentrate on a presentation of values for temperate regions in order to list a manageable amount of data. Information on plant species is grouped into four main land cover types, crops, pasture (herbs, forbs, grasses), coniferous and deciduous trees. Overall, more than 1300 values for the described parameters have been gathered and present a solid data base for future applications. Further properties of species and sites, such as stand age, basal area, stock density, plant height, mean annual precipitation, mean annual temperature, coordinates and country are given, if available. In many cases of model applications scientists used parameter spans, with no further information or testing of the distribution of data. Twenty-two of the total of 26 data sets subsumed in this data base contained sufficient values to perform a Kolmogorov-Smirnov-test. Twenty of these 22 data sets are normally distributed. In order to investigate spatial differences, the data for stomatal conductance, leaf area index and interception capacity were grouped into North American and European land cover species. Significant differences could only be determined for the leaf area index of deciduous trees and pasture species between the continents. [Excerpt: Conclusions] A comprehensive literature review has been performed in order to collect reliable information on various plant parameters commonly used in ecological and hydrological modelling. Time consuming and unreliable or irreproducible compilation of the described parameters of temperate land covers are no longer necessary, as an extensive overview on these plant parameters is made available. This data base provides valuable information for comprehensive uncertainty analysis such as Monte Carlo simulations (e.g. Eckhardt et al., 2003) or investigations like the climate model experiment on the influence of surface parameters on model results (www.climateprediction.com). [] The majority of published plant parameter values follow normal distribution. Grouping of existing data into European and North American plant species for a continental approach revealed similar parameter ranges. Overall, hardly any statistical differences between vegetation covers of North America and Europe exists for stomatal conductance and interception capacity, whereas LAI can be distinguished for pasture and deciduous forest species. A gap in the data was found for interception measurements in low-growing plants. [] A combined effort should be made to obtain sufficient information and extend the current database to other climatic zones, as for example data for tropical and sub-tropical regions is comparatively difficult to find. Modelling approaches on ecological, climatological and hydrological effects of land cover changes in these regions are of particular importance, as today main land use changes take place especially in these areas. [] Further information on some of the plant parameters presented can be obtained from two recently published data bases available at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center (http://www.daac.ornl.gov). Scurlock et al. (2001) collected a global data set on LAI and calculated basic statistics. Their collection covered a wide geographic distribution, including desert, tundra and tropical species, but lack detailled information on stand characteristics such as mean annual precipitation/temperature, stock density, basal area or plant height. Information on vertical root profiles was presented by Schenk and Jackson (2003), but less than 10\,% of the soil profiles described in their database were sampled to the maximum rooting depth. Furthermore, they published additional information such as root type, soil texture or depth of organic horizon of each soil pit under investigation, data which were not available in the literature investigated in this overview. In view of the amount and quality of information contained in the ORNL-DAAC data set and in the data base presented here, both data bases complement one another. [] [...]
@article{breuerPlantParameterValues2003,
  title = {Plant Parameter Values for Models in Temperate Climates},
  author = {Breuer, Lutz and Eckhardt, Klaus and Frede, Hans-Georg},
  date = {2003-11},
  journaltitle = {Ecological Modelling},
  volume = {169},
  pages = {237--293},
  issn = {0304-3800},
  doi = {10.1016/s0304-3800(03)00274-6},
  url = {http://mfkp.org/INRMM/article/13927659},
  abstract = {Ecological, and especially hydrological models used to assess the effects of land cover changes require various input parameters for plants. Regional model applications rely on detailed information about the properties of the vegetation, especially if process-based approaches are chosen. As raising acceptable data is a time consuming issue, scientists often use globally approximated plant parameter ranges, rather than considering published data sets. The plant parameters summarised in this overview, i.e. albedo, interception capacity, maximum leaf area index, rooting depth, plant height and stomatal conductance, can be used as data for a wide range of published ecological and hydrological models. We concentrate on a presentation of values for temperate regions in order to list a manageable amount of data. Information on plant species is grouped into four main land cover types, crops, pasture (herbs, forbs, grasses), coniferous and deciduous trees. Overall, more than 1300 values for the described parameters have been gathered and present a solid data base for future applications. Further properties of species and sites, such as stand age, basal area, stock density, plant height, mean annual precipitation, mean annual temperature, coordinates and country are given, if available. In many cases of model applications scientists used parameter spans, with no further information or testing of the distribution of data. Twenty-two of the total of 26 data sets subsumed in this data base contained sufficient values to perform a Kolmogorov-Smirnov-test. Twenty of these 22 data sets are normally distributed. In order to investigate spatial differences, the data for stomatal conductance, leaf area index and interception capacity were grouped into North American and European land cover species. Significant differences could only be determined for the leaf area index of deciduous trees and pasture species between the continents.

[Excerpt: Conclusions]

A comprehensive literature review has been performed in order to collect reliable information on various plant parameters commonly used in ecological and hydrological modelling. Time consuming and unreliable or irreproducible compilation of the described parameters of temperate land covers are no longer necessary, as an extensive overview on these plant parameters is made available. This data base provides valuable information for comprehensive uncertainty analysis such as Monte Carlo simulations (e.g. Eckhardt et al., 2003) or investigations like the climate model experiment on the influence of surface parameters on model results (www.climateprediction.com).

[] The majority of published plant parameter values follow normal distribution. Grouping of existing data into European and North American plant species for a continental approach revealed similar parameter ranges. Overall, hardly any statistical differences between vegetation covers of North America and Europe exists for stomatal conductance and interception capacity, whereas LAI can be distinguished for pasture and deciduous forest species. A gap in the data was found for interception measurements in low-growing plants.

[] A combined effort should be made to obtain sufficient information and extend the current database to other climatic zones, as for example data for tropical and sub-tropical regions is comparatively difficult to find. Modelling approaches on ecological, climatological and hydrological effects of land cover changes in these regions are of particular importance, as today main land use changes take place especially in these areas.

[] Further information on some of the plant parameters presented can be obtained from two recently published data bases available at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center (http://www.daac.ornl.gov). Scurlock et al. (2001) collected a global data set on LAI and calculated basic statistics. Their collection covered a wide geographic distribution, including desert, tundra and tropical species, but lack detailled information on stand characteristics such as mean annual precipitation/temperature, stock density, basal area or plant height. Information on vertical root profiles was presented by Schenk and Jackson (2003), but less than 10\,\% of the soil profiles described in their database were sampled to the maximum rooting depth. Furthermore, they published additional information such as root type, soil texture or depth of organic horizon of each soil pit under investigation, data which were not available in the literature investigated in this overview. In view of the amount and quality of information contained in the ORNL-DAAC data set and in the data base presented here, both data bases complement one another.

[] [...]},
  keywords = {*imported-from-citeulike-INRMM,~INRMM-MiD:c-13927659,~to-add-doi-URL,albedo,data,environmental-modelling,feedback,forest-resources,grasslands,interception-capacity,land-cover,land-use,leaf-area-index,modelling,plant-height,rooting-depth,stomatal-conductance,taxon-specific-parameters,temperate-climate},
  number = {2-3}
}
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