Performance of car following behaviour in microscopic traffic flow models. Brockfeld, E., Kelpin, R., & Wagner, P. In Möhlenbrink, W., Englmann, F., Friedrich, M., Martin, U., & Hangleiter, U., editors, 2nd International Symposium "Networks for Mobility", pages 43–43, 2004. Universität Stuttgart.
Performance of car following behaviour in microscopic traffic flow models [link]Paper  abstract   bibtex   
Microscopic simulation models are becoming increasingly important tools in modelling transport systems. They are applied in simulation programs for transport planning, traffic forecasting and advanced vehicle control and safety systems (AVCSS). An important part of the models are the microscopic sub-models which describe the interaction between adjacent vehicles. For that purpose rules and equations are defined describing the car-following and lane changing behaviour of the vehicles. An essential problem is the calibration and validation of the parameters used in these rules. In this paper ten microscopic traffic flow models of very different kind are analysed concerning the correct reproduction of the car-following behaviour on single lane roads. The models are calibrated and validated with data collected via DGPS-equipped cars (Differential Global Positioning System) on a test track in Japan. The positions of the cars are delivered every 0.1 second with very high accuracy, which is perfect for analysing the car following behaviour. To calibrate the models, in each case one driver pair is under consideration. The measured data of a leading car are fed into the model under consideration and the model is used to compute the behaviour of a following car. In the analysis the resulting simulated time series of headways are carried out and the deviations to the measured headways are calculated to calibrate the models. To find the optimal parameters an automated optimisation technique is used which tries to minimise the deviations. For validation purposes the resulting optimal parameter sets for single data sets are taken to reproduce some other data sets by simulation. At first, this is done in a driver independent way, where the drivers in the data set used for the calibration are different from those used for the validation. Secondly, to investigate whether individual driver behaviour can be reproduced better a driver-special validation is conducted, where the calibrated parameter sets obtained for each driver are taken to validate the behaviour of the same driver in other situations. Main results of the analyses are that all models produce nearly the same errors, thus sophisticated models with up to 15 parameters seem not to be better than simple models with only 4 or 6 parameters. In total it is found that the differences in the driver behaviour are much bigger than the diversity of the models. At last, the validation with special driver pairs produces slightly better results than the driver-independent validation. Thus, the behaviour of individual drivers can be reproduced a bit more accurately than trying to transfer optimal parameter results from one driver to another.
@INPROCEEDINGS{Brockfeld2004b,
  author = {Elmar Brockfeld and Rene Kelpin and Peter Wagner},
  title = {Performance of car following behaviour in microscopic traffic flow
	models},
  booktitle = {2nd International Symposium "Networks for Mobility"},
  year = {2004},
  editor = {W. M\"ohlenbrink and F.C. Englmann and M. Friedrich and U. Martin
	and U. Hangleiter},
  pages = {43--43},
  publisher = {Universit\"at Stuttgart},
  abstract = {Microscopic simulation models are becoming increasingly important
	tools in modelling transport systems. They are applied in simulation
	programs for transport planning, traffic forecasting and advanced
	vehicle control and safety systems (AVCSS). An important part of
	the models are the microscopic sub-models which describe the interaction
	between adjacent vehicles. For that purpose rules and equations are
	defined describing the car-following and lane changing behaviour
	of the vehicles. An essential problem is the calibration and validation
	of the parameters used in these rules. In this paper ten microscopic
	traffic flow models of very different kind are analysed concerning
	the correct reproduction of the car-following behaviour on single
	lane roads. The models are calibrated and validated with data collected
	via DGPS-equipped cars (Differential Global Positioning System) on
	a test track in Japan. The positions of the cars are delivered every
	0.1 second with very high accuracy, which is perfect for analysing
	the car following behaviour. To calibrate the models, in each case
	one driver pair is under consideration. The measured data of a leading
	car are fed into the model under consideration and the model is used
	to compute the behaviour of a following car. In the analysis the
	resulting simulated time series of headways are carried out and the
	deviations to the measured headways are calculated to calibrate the
	models. To find the optimal parameters an automated optimisation
	technique is used which tries to minimise the deviations. For validation
	purposes the resulting optimal parameter sets for single data sets
	are taken to reproduce some other data sets by simulation. At first,
	this is done in a driver independent way, where the drivers in the
	data set used for the calibration are different from those used for
	the validation. Secondly, to investigate whether individual driver
	behaviour can be reproduced better a driver-special validation is
	conducted, where the calibrated parameter sets obtained for each
	driver are taken to validate the behaviour of the same driver in
	other situations. Main results of the analyses are that all models
	produce nearly the same errors, thus sophisticated models with up
	to 15 parameters seem not to be better than simple models with only
	4 or 6 parameters. In total it is found that the differences in the
	driver behaviour are much bigger than the diversity of the models.
	At last, the validation with special driver pairs produces slightly
	better results than the driver-independent validation. Thus, the
	behaviour of individual drivers can be reproduced a bit more accurately
	than trying to transfer optimal parameter results from one driver
	to another.},
  journal = {Networks for Mobility 2004, Proceedings - Abstracts and CD-ROM},
  keywords = {simulation,model,microscopic models,calibration,validation,GPS,DGPS,car
	following, DLR/TS/VM},
  owner = {dkrajzew},
  timestamp = {2011.09.30},
  url = {http://elib.dlr.de/21349/}
}

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