Implementation and Achievements of CLC2006. Büttner, G.; Kosztra, B.; Maucha, G.; Pataki, R.; and Erhard, M. .
Implementation and Achievements of CLC2006 [link]Paper  abstract   bibtex   
[Excerpt: Executive Summary] Strategic discussions among EEA member countries and the main EU institutions responsible for environmental policy, reporting and assessment have underlined an increasing need for quantitative information on the state of the environment based on timely, quality-assured data, concerning in particular land cover and land use. Based on these requirements EEA has been collaborating since 2006 with the European Commission and the European Space Agency on the implementation of a fast track service on land monitoring as part of the implementation of GMES. [] CORINE Land Cover 2006 is the third European Land Cover inventory (1990, 2000 and 2006). The number of participating countries is increasing, at present being nominally 39. New countries (CH, IS, NO, TR) not participating previous CLC inventories have joined the project. Altogether 38 countries have implemented CLC2006. [] CLC2006 project is co-financed by the EEA and the member countries, and covers 5.8 Mkm2 of the European continent. For production of CLC-Change2000-2006 database ” change-mapping first” visual photo-interpretation technology was successfully applied by majority of countries. Scandinavian countries replaced part of labour-intensive photointerpretation with GIS and image processing. CLC2006 database was usually produced in GIS by adding CLC-Change2000-2006 to revised CLC2000. [] A Technical Team under ETC-LUSI was responsible for technical follow-up of the project, i.e. training of national teams and verification of results. National teams used multitemporal (2 coverages) SPOT-4/5 and/or IRS-P6 imagery to derive the minimum 5 ha land cover changes that occurred between 2000 and 2006. Ortho-corrected satellite images provided a solid geometrical basis for mapping land cover changes. Particular emphasis was placed on mapping real change processes. Several national teams had access to recent topographic maps and digital orthophotos as in-situ data. The standard CLC nomenclature used since the mid 1980's was applicable, although minor modifications were required due to involvement of new countries and occurrence of specific changes. Recent report also presents examples of (1) typical cases of significant change processes, and (2) typical mistakes, which have to be avoided. [] Results of the CLC2006 project (CLC2006 and CLC-Change2000-2006 databases) are for free available from the EEA for any users. Results show that land cover changed on 1.24\,% of the surface of Europe between 2000 and 2006, which is equivalent to the size of Lithuania. Forestry changes (forest felling and growth) constitute the largest change area, also providing the highest number of change polygons. Several policy-relevant processes can be derived from the CLC-Change dataset based on Land Cover Flows, such as urban sprawl, changes in agriculture and forestry, new water bodies etc. Portugal is the country having far more the highest CLC dynamics: the change rate exceeds 1.4 %/year between 2000 and 2006. On the other end, the less dynamic countries are Malta, Switzerland and Slovenia having changed less than 0.01\,%/year. The average yearly land cover change value in Europe is 0.23\,%. [] Stratified random sampling was used for validating CLC-Change2000-2006. The obtained 87.82\,%±3.30\,% (commission error only) overall accuracy based on 2405 samples is satisfying. Omissions were not possible to measure due to the very large sample size required, being the consequence of small change percentage. [] Additional testing of ten important level-3 changes (belonging to eight different Land Cover Flows) showed that all but two change types have more than 85\,% accuracy. Only two change types were mapped with accuracy lower than 85\,%: (1) growth of coniferous forests; (2) pasture/set-aside land turned to arable land. [] Main reasons of the 3-year-long implementation time are difficulties in providing national contribution and long GIS integration time in some of the 38 participants. [] [...]
@report{buttnerImplementationAchievementsCLC20062012,
  title = {Implementation and Achievements of {{CLC2006}}},
  author = {Büttner, G. and Kosztra, B. and Maucha, G. and Pataki, R. and Erhard, Markus},
  date = {2012},
  institution = {{European Environment Agency}},
  url = {https://tinyurl.com/qqq96e3},
  abstract = {[Excerpt: Executive Summary]

Strategic discussions among EEA member countries and the main EU institutions responsible for environmental policy, reporting and assessment have underlined an increasing need for quantitative information on the state of the environment based on timely, quality-assured data, concerning in particular land cover and land use. Based on these requirements EEA has been collaborating since 2006 with the European Commission and the European Space Agency on the implementation of a fast track service on land monitoring as part of the implementation of GMES.

[] CORINE Land Cover 2006 is the third European Land Cover inventory (1990, 2000 and 2006). The number of participating countries is increasing, at present being nominally 39. New countries (CH, IS, NO, TR) not participating previous CLC inventories have joined the project. Altogether 38 countries have implemented CLC2006. 

[] CLC2006 project is co-financed by the EEA and the member countries, and covers 5.8 Mkm2 of the European continent. For production of CLC-Change2000-2006 database ” change-mapping first” visual photo-interpretation technology was successfully applied by majority of countries. Scandinavian countries replaced part of labour-intensive photointerpretation with GIS and image processing. CLC2006 database was usually produced in GIS by adding CLC-Change2000-2006 to revised CLC2000.

[] A Technical Team under ETC-LUSI was responsible for technical follow-up of the project, i.e. training of national teams and verification of results. National teams used multitemporal (2 coverages) SPOT-4/5 and/or IRS-P6 imagery to derive the minimum 5 ha land cover changes that occurred between 2000 and 2006. Ortho-corrected satellite images provided a solid geometrical basis for mapping land cover changes. Particular emphasis was placed on mapping real change processes. Several national teams had access to recent topographic maps and digital orthophotos as in-situ data. The standard CLC nomenclature used since the mid 1980's was applicable, although minor modifications were required due to involvement of new countries and occurrence of specific changes. Recent report also presents examples of (1) typical cases of significant change processes, and (2) typical mistakes, which have to be avoided.

[] Results of the CLC2006 project (CLC2006 and CLC-Change2000-2006 databases) are for free available from the EEA for any users. Results show that land cover changed on 1.24\,\% of the surface of Europe between 2000 and 2006, which is equivalent to the size of Lithuania. Forestry changes (forest felling and growth) constitute the largest change area, also providing the highest number of change polygons. Several policy-relevant processes can be derived from the CLC-Change dataset based on Land Cover Flows, such as urban sprawl, changes in agriculture and forestry, new water bodies etc. Portugal is the country having far more the highest CLC dynamics: the change rate exceeds 1.4 \%/year between 2000 and 2006. On the other end, the less dynamic countries are Malta, Switzerland and Slovenia having changed less than 0.01\,\%/year. The average yearly land cover change value in Europe is 0.23\,\%.

[] Stratified random sampling was used for validating CLC-Change2000-2006. The obtained 87.82\,\%±3.30\,\% (commission error only) overall accuracy based on 2405 samples is satisfying. Omissions were not possible to measure due to the very large sample size required, being the consequence of small change percentage.

[] Additional testing of ten important level-3 changes (belonging to eight different Land Cover Flows) showed that all but two change types have more than 85\,\% accuracy. Only two change types were mapped with accuracy lower than 85\,\%: (1) growth of coniferous forests; (2) pasture/set-aside land turned to arable land.

[] Main reasons of the 3-year-long implementation time are difficulties in providing national contribution and long GIS integration time in some of the 38 participants.

[] [...]},
  keywords = {*imported-from-citeulike-INRMM,~INRMM-MiD:c-14284151,clc,corroboration,europe,land-cover,validation}
}
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