International Journal of Spatial Data Infrastructures Research, 1:36-50, 2006. Paper abstract bibtex
Information and communication technology (ICT), information infrastructure (II), geographic information system (GIS), and spatial data infrastructure (SDI) have interdependences. However, there has not been systematic exploration of their dependences, and therefore the nature of their relationships is not precisely known. Here, we use the “Bermuda” metaphor to initiate the discussion on which one of them enable and which ones constrain the others and how so. We argue that, by providing generic technological base, ICT and II potentially enable GIS and SDI; GIS and SDI mutually support and enable each other; and GIS and SDI do offer important contents to ICT and II services. The effective use of each of the ICT, II, GIS and SDI is enhanced by others. Thus, with the Bermuda Square model, we reveal that a greater social impact will ensue when we consider the whole square instead of treating its parts separately.