Potential risk of harmful algae transport by ballast waters: The case of Bilbao Harbour. Butrón, A.; Orive, E.; and Madariaga, I. 62(4):747–757. Number: 4
Potential risk of harmful algae transport by ballast waters: The case of Bilbao Harbour [link]Paper  doi  abstract   bibtex   
Ballast water exchange was measured for the first time in Bilbao Harbour, one of the most active of northern Spain. Between 1997 and 2006, 41,900,980.34 ballast water tn were loaded and 13,272,709 tn were discharged. Bilbao Harbour appears to be mainly a source of ballast water, 90% of which would be discharged in European harbours. We estimated that vessels carrying liquid and solid bulk have higher probabilities of exporting ballast water, whereas those with liquid bulk and containers are more likely to introduce it. From 30 potentially harmful phytoplankton species identified to date near harbour facilities, there would be a high risk of exporting at least Alexandrium minutum, Dinophysis sp., Heterosigma akashiwo, Karlodinium sp., Ostreopsis cf. siamensis, Pfiesteria-like and Prorocentrum minimum. Invasion risk by ballast water was tested by analyzing the response of six strains of H. akashiwo from different geographic areas to varying salinity. Results show that successful growth of foreign strains would be possible.
@article{butron_potential_2011,
	title = {Potential risk of harmful algae transport by ballast waters: The case of Bilbao Harbour},
	volume = {62},
	issn = {0025-326X},
	url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0025326X11000129},
	doi = {10.1016/j.marpolbul.2011.01.008},
	shorttitle = {Potential risk of harmful algae transport by ballast waters},
	abstract = {Ballast water exchange was measured for the first time in Bilbao Harbour, one of the most active of northern Spain. Between 1997 and 2006, 41,900,980.34 ballast water tn were loaded and 13,272,709 tn were discharged. Bilbao Harbour appears to be mainly a source of ballast water, 90\% of which would be discharged in European harbours. We estimated that vessels carrying liquid and solid bulk have higher probabilities of exporting ballast water, whereas those with liquid bulk and containers are more likely to introduce it. From 30 potentially harmful phytoplankton species identified to date near harbour facilities, there would be a high risk of exporting at least Alexandrium minutum, Dinophysis sp., Heterosigma akashiwo, Karlodinium sp., Ostreopsis cf. siamensis, Pfiesteria-like and Prorocentrum minimum. Invasion risk by ballast water was tested by analyzing the response of six strains of H. akashiwo from different geographic areas to varying salinity. Results show that successful growth of foreign strains would be possible.},
	pages = {747--757},
	number = {4},
	journaltitle = {Marine Pollution Bulletin},
	shortjournal = {Marine Pollution Bulletin},
	author = {Butrón, Ainhize and Orive, Emma and Madariaga, Iosu},
	urldate = {2019-04-15},
	date = {2011-04-01},
	note = {Number: 4},
	keywords = {Ballast water, Bilbao, Harbour, Harmful phytoplankton}
}
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