Surgical treatment of pediatric cardiac arrhythmia. Campbell, R., Hammon, J., Echt, D., & Graham, T. J Pediatr, 110(4):501–508, April, 1987.
Surgical treatment of pediatric cardiac arrhythmia. [link]Paper  abstract   bibtex   
The combination of improved diagnostic techniques, new and potent antiarrhythmia agents, and progress in antiarrhythmia surgical procedures has resulted in successful management of complex cardiac arrhythmia in children. The kinds of arrhythmia that can be considered for possible surgical intervention share several features. Each produces symptoms and usually is hemodynamically compromising. Each requires extensive preoperative and intraoperative electrophysiologic evaluation to establish the mechanism, response to drugs, and suitability for surgery. Although reports of surgical arrhythmia treatment have been limited in children, with increasing success the indications for such treatment may become less stringent. Our recommendations are shown in the Table. In general, patients intolerant of or unresponsive to medical treatment for symptomatic arrhythmia (tachycardia or bradycardia), should be considered candidates for surgical antiarrhythmia procedures. These patients should be referred for testing to cardiac centers staffed by pediatric cardiac electrophysiologists and surgeons experienced in arrhythmia diagnosis and ablation. Careful evaluation can identify those patients in whom surgical approaches are most appropriate. At present, surgical operations for selected, serious pediatric cardiac arrhythmias offer definitive and possibly curative treatment, and may be preferable to inadequate, poorly tolerated, or long-term medical therapy.
@article{campbell_surgical_1987,
	title = {Surgical treatment of pediatric cardiac arrhythmia.},
	volume = {110},
	issn = {0022-3476},
	url = {https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3559798},
	abstract = {The combination of improved diagnostic techniques, new and potent antiarrhythmia agents, and progress in antiarrhythmia surgical procedures has resulted in successful management of complex cardiac arrhythmia in children. The kinds of arrhythmia that can be considered for possible surgical intervention share several features. Each produces symptoms and usually is hemodynamically compromising. Each requires extensive preoperative and intraoperative electrophysiologic evaluation to establish the mechanism, response to drugs, and suitability for surgery. Although reports of surgical arrhythmia treatment have been limited in children, with increasing success the indications for such treatment may become less stringent. Our recommendations are shown in the Table. In general, patients intolerant of or unresponsive to medical treatment for symptomatic arrhythmia (tachycardia or bradycardia), should be considered candidates for surgical antiarrhythmia procedures. These patients should be referred for testing to cardiac centers staffed by pediatric cardiac electrophysiologists and surgeons experienced in arrhythmia diagnosis and ablation. Careful evaluation can identify those patients in whom surgical approaches are most appropriate. At present, surgical operations for selected, serious pediatric cardiac arrhythmias offer definitive and possibly curative treatment, and may be preferable to inadequate, poorly tolerated, or long-term medical therapy.},
	language = {eng},
	number = {4},
	journal = {J Pediatr},
	author = {Campbell, RM and Hammon, JW and Echt, DS and Graham, TP},
	month = apr,
	year = {1987},
	keywords = {Tetralogy of Fallot},
	pages = {501--508}
}
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