Detection of caval obstruction by magnetic resonance imaging after intraatrial repair of transposition of the great arteries. Campbell, R., Moreau, G., Johns, J., Burger, J., Mazer, M, Graham, T., & Kulkarni, M. Am J Cardiol, 60(8):688–691, September, 1987.
Detection of caval obstruction by magnetic resonance imaging after intraatrial repair of transposition of the great arteries. [link]Paper  abstract   bibtex   
Vena caval obstruction may cause significant morbidity after intraatrial repair of transposition of the great arteries (TGA). Two noninvasive methods of diagnosing vena caval obstruction were compared with cardiac catheterization. Echocardiographically gated magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and echocardiographic evaluation (2-dimensional saline contrast echocardiography and pulsed Doppler flow measurement) were performed on 15 patients 0.7 to 13.5 years after intraatrial repair of TGA (8 Mustard, 7 Senning). At catheterization, complete superior vena cava or partial caval obstruction (gradient greater than 5 mm Hg from cava to systemic venous atrium) was present in 7 of 15 patients. Superior vena cava obstruction was directly visualized by MRI in both patients with catheterization-proved complete superior vena cava occlusion. A dilated azygous/hemiazygous venous complex (greater than or equal to 5 mm cross-sectional diameter) was seen by MRI in 5 of 7 patients with complex or partial vena caval obstruction and in no patient without vena caval obstruction. MRI showed superior vena caval dilatation (ratio of superior vena caval diameter to aortic diameter greater than 1.45) in 3 of 5 patients with partial vena caval obstruction and in 0 of 8 without vena caval obstruction. Direct visualization of narrowing within the atrium was unreliable for any MRI plane because of the 3-dimensional nature of the intraatrial baffle. Two-dimensional saline contrast echocardiography, successfully performed in 12 of 15 patients, detected complete superior vena caval obstruction only in the 2 patients with catheterization-proved complete superior vena cava occlusion. Contrast echocardiography failed to identify any of the 5 patients with partial vena caval obstruction.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
@article{campbell_detection_1987,
	title = {Detection of caval obstruction by magnetic resonance imaging after intraatrial repair of transposition of the great arteries.},
	volume = {60},
	issn = {0002-9149},
	url = {https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3661436},
	abstract = {Vena caval obstruction may cause significant morbidity after intraatrial repair of transposition of the great arteries (TGA). Two noninvasive methods of diagnosing vena caval obstruction were compared with cardiac catheterization. Echocardiographically gated magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and echocardiographic evaluation (2-dimensional saline contrast echocardiography and pulsed Doppler flow measurement) were performed on 15 patients 0.7 to 13.5 years after intraatrial repair of TGA (8 Mustard, 7 Senning). At catheterization, complete superior vena cava or partial caval obstruction (gradient greater than 5 mm Hg from cava to systemic venous atrium) was present in 7 of 15 patients. Superior vena cava obstruction was directly visualized by MRI in both patients with catheterization-proved complete superior vena cava occlusion. A dilated azygous/hemiazygous venous complex (greater than or equal to 5 mm cross-sectional diameter) was seen by MRI in 5 of 7 patients with complex or partial vena caval obstruction and in no patient without vena caval obstruction. MRI showed superior vena caval dilatation (ratio of superior vena caval diameter to aortic diameter greater than 1.45) in 3 of 5 patients with partial vena caval obstruction and in 0 of 8 without vena caval obstruction. Direct visualization of narrowing within the atrium was unreliable for any MRI plane because of the 3-dimensional nature of the intraatrial baffle. Two-dimensional saline contrast echocardiography, successfully performed in 12 of 15 patients, detected complete superior vena caval obstruction only in the 2 patients with catheterization-proved complete superior vena cava occlusion. Contrast echocardiography failed to identify any of the 5 patients with partial vena caval obstruction.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)},
	language = {eng},
	number = {8},
	journal = {Am J Cardiol},
	author = {Campbell, RM and Moreau, GA and Johns, JA and Burger, JD and Mazer, M and Graham, TP and Kulkarni, MV},
	month = sep,
	year = {1987},
	keywords = {Venae Cavae},
	pages = {688--691}
}
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