Botulinum toxin type A for the treatment of the spastic equinus foot in cerebral palsy. Cardoso, S, E., Rodrigues, M, B., Barroso, M., Menezes, J, C., Lucena, S, R., Nora, B, D., & Melo, A. Pediatr Neurol, 34(2):106--109, February, 2006.
Botulinum toxin type A for the treatment of the spastic equinus foot in cerebral palsy. [link]Paper  doi  abstract   bibtex   
Muscle overactivity, one of the cardinal features of spasticity, is a common sequel of cerebral palsy. In this group of patients spasticity is responsible for several limitations that interfere with gait, causing variable functional disability. Drugs such as baclofen, tizanidine, or benzodiazepines, or even definitive treatments such as orthopedics or neurosurgeries are generally prescribed with uncertain results. The use of botulinum toxin type A has been frequently suggested for the treatment of spastic equinus foot in cerebral palsy, but few studies with adequate methodology support this idea. The present paper reviews and summarizes the data of published double-blind, randomized clinical trials to assess, with a meta-analysis, if botulinum toxin type A is an adequate treatment for spasticity caused by cerebral palsy. The results reveal a statistical superiority of botulinum toxin type A over placebo on gait improvement, tested using the Physician Rating Scale and Video Gait Analysis (Peto odds ratio = 3.99, 95% confidence interval = 2.20-7.22) in patients with spastic equinus foot. The botulinum toxin group also presented better results in the subjective assessment than the placebo group (Peto odds ratio = 3.49, 95% confidence interval = 1.50-8.12). Adverse events were more frequently observed after the use of botulinum toxin type A, but they were considered mild and self-limited.
@article{ Cardoso2006,
  abstract = {Muscle overactivity, one of the cardinal features of spasticity, is a common sequel of cerebral palsy. In this group of patients spasticity is responsible for several limitations that interfere with gait, causing variable functional disability. Drugs such as baclofen, tizanidine, or benzodiazepines, or even definitive treatments such as orthopedics or neurosurgeries are generally prescribed with uncertain results. The use of botulinum toxin type A has been frequently suggested for the treatment of spastic equinus foot in cerebral palsy, but few studies with adequate methodology support this idea. The present paper reviews and summarizes the data of published double-blind, randomized clinical trials to assess, with a meta-analysis, if botulinum toxin type A is an adequate treatment for spasticity caused by cerebral palsy. The results reveal a statistical superiority of botulinum toxin type A over placebo on gait improvement, tested using the Physician Rating Scale and Video Gait Analysis (Peto odds ratio = 3.99, 95% confidence interval = 2.20-7.22) in patients with spastic equinus foot. The botulinum toxin group also presented better results in the subjective assessment than the placebo group (Peto odds ratio = 3.49, 95% confidence interval = 1.50-8.12). Adverse events were more frequently observed after the use of botulinum toxin type A, but they were considered mild and self-limited.},
  added-at = {2014-07-19T19:13:43.000+0200},
  author = {Cardoso, Eduardo S and Rodrigues, Bernardo M and Barroso, Marcelo and Menezes, Carla J and Lucena, Rita S and Nora, Daniel B and Melo, Ailton},
  biburl = {http://www.bibsonomy.org/bibtex/2404aca5fc0907524ebdec2a9cd473bf9/ar0berts},
  doi = {10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2005.08.010},
  groups = {public},
  interhash = {9db2ccf5dc3f80bc43bb538f30f348cd},
  intrahash = {404aca5fc0907524ebdec2a9cd473bf9},
  journal = {Pediatr Neurol},
  keywords = {Adolescent; Botulinum Toxin Type A; Cerebral Palsy; Child; Child, Preschool; Equinus Deformity; Gait; Humans; Muscle Spasticity; Neuromuscular Agents; Treatment Outcome},
  month = {February},
  number = {2},
  pages = {106--109},
  pii = {S0887-8994(05)00481-9},
  pmid = {16458821},
  timestamp = {2007.06.22},
  title = {Botulinum toxin type A for the treatment of the spastic equinus foot in cerebral palsy.},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2005.08.010},
  username = {ar0berts},
  volume = {34},
  year = {2006}
}
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