Mutation at the phenylalanine hydroxylase gene (PAH) and its use to document population genetic variation: the Quebec experience. Carter, K., C., Byck, S., Waters, P., J., Richards, B., Nowacki, P., M., Laframboise, R., Lambert, M., Treacy, E., & Scriver, C., R. Eur J Hum Genet, 6(1):61-70, 1998.
Mutation at the phenylalanine hydroxylase gene (PAH) and its use to document population genetic variation: the Quebec experience [pdf]Paper  abstract   bibtex   
We describe variation at the PAH locus in the population of Quebec. We successfully analyzed 135 of 141 chromosomes from phenylketonuria (PKU) probands (95.7% of the sample), and eight additional chromosomes from a small number of probands with non-PKU hyperphenylalaninemia (HPA). The full set of chromosomes harboured 45 different PAH mutations: i) seven polymorphisms (IVS2nt19, IVS3nt-22, IVS6nt-55, Q232Q, V245V, L385L, Y414Y); ii) four mutations causing non-PKU HPA (T92I, E390G, R408Q, D415N); iii) 34 mutations causing PKU. Only six mutations (M1V, R261Q, F299C, S349P, R408W and IVS12nt1) occurred in the whole province at relative frequencies > 5%: most are rare and probably identical by descent. By studying associations of mutations with polymorphic haplotype alleles, we found examples of mutations on different haplotypes that were identical by state, but not by descent because they were recurrent mutations (E280K and R408W); and examples of mutations identical both by state and by descent because of intragenic recombination (S67P, G218V, V245A and IVS12nt1). Ten mutations were first described in Quebec and five are still unique there; three of these 'Quebec' mutations are reported here for the first time (c.125A-->T (K42I); [c.470G-->A; c.471A--C] (R157N); c.707nt-55 (IVS6nt-55). The PAH mutations stratify by geographic region and population, their distributions validating hypotheses about European range expansion to North America during three separate phases of immigration and demographic expansion in the Quebec region over the past four centuries. The PAH homozygosity value (j) is 0.06 for the total Quebec sample (0.5-0.08 by regions), and the corresponding homoallelic fraction of mutant PAH genotypes is 24%. These findings are a documentation of genetic diversity in the Quebec population.
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 title = {Mutation at the phenylalanine hydroxylase gene (PAH) and its use to document population genetic variation: the Quebec experience},
 type = {article},
 year = {1998},
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 keywords = {*Mutation,*Variation (Genetics),Alleles,Amino Acid Metabolism, Inborn Errors/genetics,Chromosomes, Human, Pair 12/genetics,Databases, Factual,Haplotypes,Homozygote,Human,Phenylalanine Hydroxylase/*genetics,Phenylalanine/metabolism,Phenylketonurias/enzymology/*epidemiology/*genetic,Polymorphism (Genetics),Quebec/epidemiology,Support, Non-U.S. Gov't},
 pages = {61-70},
 volume = {6},
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 abstract = {We describe variation at the PAH locus in the population of Quebec. We successfully analyzed 135 of 141 chromosomes from phenylketonuria (PKU) probands (95.7% of the sample), and eight additional chromosomes from a small number of probands with non-PKU hyperphenylalaninemia (HPA). The full set of chromosomes harboured 45 different PAH mutations: i) seven polymorphisms (IVS2nt19, IVS3nt-22, IVS6nt-55, Q232Q, V245V, L385L, Y414Y); ii) four mutations causing non-PKU HPA (T92I, E390G, R408Q, D415N); iii) 34 mutations causing PKU. Only six mutations (M1V, R261Q, F299C, S349P, R408W and IVS12nt1) occurred in the whole province at relative frequencies > 5%: most are rare and probably identical by descent. By studying associations of mutations with polymorphic haplotype alleles, we found examples of mutations on different haplotypes that were identical by state, but not by descent because they were recurrent mutations (E280K and R408W); and examples of mutations identical both by state and by descent because of intragenic recombination (S67P, G218V, V245A and IVS12nt1). Ten mutations were first described in Quebec and five are still unique there; three of these 'Quebec' mutations are reported here for the first time (c.125A-->T (K42I); [c.470G-->A; c.471A--C] (R157N); c.707nt-55 (IVS6nt-55). The PAH mutations stratify by geographic region and population, their distributions validating hypotheses about European range expansion to North America during three separate phases of immigration and demographic expansion in the Quebec region over the past four centuries. The PAH homozygosity value (j) is 0.06 for the total Quebec sample (0.5-0.08 by regions), and the corresponding homoallelic fraction of mutant PAH genotypes is 24%. These findings are a documentation of genetic diversity in the Quebec population.},
 bibtype = {article},
 author = {Carter, K C and Byck, S and Waters, P J and Richards, B and Nowacki, P M and Laframboise, R and Lambert, M and Treacy, E and Scriver, C R},
 journal = {Eur J Hum Genet},
 number = {1}
}
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