The Decline of a Pinus Nigra Arn. Reforestation Stand on a Limestone Substrate: The Role of Nutritional Factors Examined by Means of Foliar Diagnosis. Cenni, E., Bussotti, F., & Galeotti, L. Annals of Forest Science, 55(5):567–576, 1998.
doi  abstract   bibtex   
The Austrian black pine reforestation projects on Monte Morello, near the heavily populated metropolitan area of Florence (Italy), have been affected for many years now by a severe decline consisting of widespread crown yellowing. To investigate the causes of this decline foliar diagnosis methods were used to monitor the nutritional status of ten trees, sampling and analysing every year, between 1989 and 1992, the current year needles (c), needles from the previous year (c+ I) and from the year before that (c+2). The parameters examined were both chemical (nitrogen, sulphur, magnesium, potassium, calcium, manganese, iron and lead) and morphological (needle length, flat projection, dry weight, specific dry weight and water content). The findings show a considerable calcium accumulation as the needles age, accompanied by an increase in dry weight and specific dry weight, as well as a marked antagonism to manganese. The influence of the nearby metropolitan area of Florence is suggested by the accumulation of lead.
@article{cenniDeclinePinusNigra1998,
  title = {The Decline of a {{Pinus}} Nigra {{Arn}}. Reforestation Stand on a Limestone Substrate: The Role of Nutritional Factors Examined by Means of Foliar Diagnosis},
  author = {Cenni, Enrico and Bussotti, Filippo and Galeotti, Lorenzo},
  year = {1998},
  volume = {55},
  pages = {567--576},
  issn = {0003-4312},
  doi = {10.1051/forest:19980504},
  abstract = {The Austrian black pine reforestation projects on Monte Morello, near the heavily populated metropolitan area of Florence (Italy), have been affected for many years now by a severe decline consisting of widespread crown yellowing. To investigate the causes of this decline foliar diagnosis methods were used to monitor the nutritional status of ten trees, sampling and analysing every year, between 1989 and 1992, the current year needles (c), needles from the previous year (c+ I) and from the year before that (c+2). The parameters examined were both chemical (nitrogen, sulphur, magnesium, potassium, calcium, manganese, iron and lead) and morphological (needle length, flat projection, dry weight, specific dry weight and water content). The findings show a considerable calcium accumulation as the needles age, accompanied by an increase in dry weight and specific dry weight, as well as a marked antagonism to manganese. The influence of the nearby metropolitan area of Florence is suggested by the accumulation of lead.},
  journal = {Annals of Forest Science},
  keywords = {*imported-from-citeulike-INRMM,~INRMM-MiD:c-13504747,afforestation,calcium,chlorosis,iron,leaf-senescence,manganese,pinus-nigra},
  lccn = {INRMM-MiD:c-13504747},
  number = {5}
}
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