Visualisation of needle position using ultrasonography. Chapman, G A, Johnson, D, & Bodenham, A R Anaesthesia, 61(2):148–158, February, 2006.
Visualisation of needle position using ultrasonography [link]Paper  doi  abstract   bibtex   
Anaesthetists and intensivists spend a considerable proportion of their working time inserting needles and catheters into patients. In order to access deeper structures like central veins and nerves, they have traditionally relied on surface markings to guide the needle into the correct position. However, patients may present challenges due to anatomical abnormalities and size. Irrespective of the skill of the operator, there is the ever-present risk of needle misplacement with the potential of damage to structures like arteries, nerve bundles and pleura. Repeated attempts, even if ultimately successful, cause patient suffering and probably increase the risk of infection and other long term complications. Portable and affordable, high-resolution ultrasound scanners, has accelerated the interest in the use of ultrasound guidance for interventional procedures. Ultrasound guidance offers several advantages including a greater likelihood of success, fewer complications and less time spent on the procedure. Even if the target structure is identified correctly there is still the challenge to place the needle or other devices in the optimum site. The smaller and deeper the target, the greater the challenge and potential usefulness of ultrasound guidance. As a result of limited training in the use of ultrasound we believe that many clinicians fail to use it to its full potential. A lack of understanding, with regard to imaging the location of the needle tip remains a major obstacle. Needle visualisation and related topics form the basis for this review.
@article{chapman_visualisation_2006,
	title = {Visualisation of needle position using ultrasonography},
	volume = {61},
	issn = {0003-2409},
	url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16430568},
	doi = {10.1111/j.1365-2044.2005.04475.x},
	abstract = {Anaesthetists and intensivists spend a considerable proportion of their working time inserting needles and catheters into patients. In order to access deeper structures like central veins and nerves, they have traditionally relied on surface markings to guide the needle into the correct position. However, patients may present challenges due to anatomical abnormalities and size. Irrespective of the skill of the operator, there is the ever-present risk of needle misplacement with the potential of damage to structures like arteries, nerve bundles and pleura. Repeated attempts, even if ultimately successful, cause patient suffering and probably increase the risk of infection and other long term complications. Portable and affordable, high-resolution ultrasound scanners, has accelerated the interest in the use of ultrasound guidance for interventional procedures. Ultrasound guidance offers several advantages including a greater likelihood of success, fewer complications and less time spent on the procedure. Even if the target structure is identified correctly there is still the challenge to place the needle or other devices in the optimum site. The smaller and deeper the target, the greater the challenge and potential usefulness of ultrasound guidance. As a result of limited training in the use of ultrasound we believe that many clinicians fail to use it to its full potential. A lack of understanding, with regard to imaging the location of the needle tip remains a major obstacle. Needle visualisation and related topics form the basis for this review.},
	number = {2},
	urldate = {2012-02-08TZ},
	journal = {Anaesthesia},
	author = {Chapman, G A and Johnson, D and Bodenham, A R},
	month = feb,
	year = {2006},
	pmid = {16430568},
	keywords = {Acoustics, Biophysical Phenomena, Biophysics, Catheterization, Central Venous, Equipment Design, Humans, Needles, Phantoms, Imaging, Transducers, Ultrasonography, Interventional},
	pages = {148--158}
}
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