Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy. Claxton, N. S, Fellers, T. J, & Davidson, M. W Encyclopedia of Medical Devices and Instrumentation, 1979(21):1--37, 2006.
doi  abstract   bibtex   
Laser scanning confocal microscopy has become an invaluable tool for a wide range of investigations in the biological and medical sciences for imaging thin optical sections in living and fixed specimens ranging in thickness up to 100 micrometers. Modern instruments are equipped with 3-5 laser systems controlled by high-speed acousto-optic tunable filters (AOTFs), which allow very precise regulation of wavelength and excitation intensity. Coupled with photomultipliers that have high quantum efficiency in the near-ultraviolet, visible and near-infrared spectral regions, these microscopes are capable of examining fluorescence emission ranging from 400 to 750 nanometers. Instruments equipped with spectral imaging detection systems further refine the technique by enabling the examination and resolution of fluorophores with overlapping spectra as well as providing the ability to compensate for autofluorescence. Recent advances in fluorophore design have led to improved synthetic and naturally occurring molecular probes, including fluorescent proteins and quantum dots, which exhibit a high level of photostability and target specificity.
@article{claxton_laser_2006,
	title = {Laser {Scanning} {Confocal} {Microscopy}},
	volume = {1979},
	issn = {00778923},
	doi = {10.1002/0471732877.emd291},
	abstract = {Laser scanning confocal microscopy has become an invaluable tool for a wide range of investigations in the biological and medical sciences for imaging thin optical sections in living and fixed specimens ranging in thickness up to 100 micrometers. Modern instruments are equipped with 3-5 laser systems controlled by high-speed acousto-optic tunable filters (AOTFs), which allow very precise regulation of wavelength and excitation intensity. Coupled with photomultipliers that have high quantum efficiency in the near-ultraviolet, visible and near-infrared spectral regions, these microscopes are capable of examining fluorescence emission ranging from 400 to 750 nanometers. Instruments equipped with spectral imaging detection systems further refine the technique by enabling the examination and resolution of fluorophores with overlapping spectra as well as providing the ability to compensate for autofluorescence. Recent advances in fluorophore design have led to improved synthetic and naturally occurring molecular probes, including fluorescent proteins and quantum dots, which exhibit a high level of photostability and target specificity.},
	number = {21},
	journal = {Encyclopedia of Medical Devices and Instrumentation},
	author = {Claxton, Nathan S and Fellers, Thomas J and Davidson, Michael W},
	year = {2006},
	pmid = {20502028},
	keywords = {Confocal, Fluorescence, Microscopy, Photobleaching, acousto-optic tunable filter, airy disks, alexa fluor, aotf, cyanine, fluorescent proteins, fluorophores, laser, optical sections, photomultipliers, point-spread function, quantum dots, resolution, scanning, spinning disk, volume rendering, widefield},
	pages = {1--37}
}
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