Ignoring the Great Firewall of China. Clayton, R., Murdoch, S. J., & Watson, R. N. M. June 2006.
Ignoring the Great Firewall of China [link]Paper  doi  abstract   bibtex   
The so-called \textquotedblleftGreat Firewall of China\textquotedblright operates, in part, by inspecting TCP packets for keywords that are to be blocked. If the keyword is present, TCP reset packets (viz: with the RST flag set) are sent to both endpoints of the connection, which then close. However, because the original packets are passed through the firewall unscathed, if the endpoints completely ignore the firewall\textquoterights resets, then the connection will proceed unhindered. Once one connection has been blocked, the firewall makes further easy-to-evade attempts to block further connections from the same machine. This latter behaviour can be leveraged into a denial-of-service attack on third-party machines.
@conference {clayton:pet2006,
	title = {Ignoring the Great Firewall of China},
	booktitle = {Proceedings of the Sixth Workshop on Privacy Enhancing Technologies (PET 2006)},
	year = {2006},
	month = {June},
	pages = {20{\textendash}35},
	publisher = {Springer},
	organization = {Springer},
	address = {Cambridge, UK},
	abstract = {The so-called {\textquotedblleft}Great Firewall of China{\textquotedblright} operates, in part, by inspecting TCP packets for keywords that are to be blocked. If the keyword is present, TCP reset packets (viz: with the RST flag set) are sent to both endpoints of the connection, which then close. However, because the original packets are passed through the firewall unscathed, if the endpoints completely ignore the firewall{\textquoteright}s resets, then the connection will proceed unhindered. Once one connection has been blocked, the firewall makes further easy-to-evade attempts to block further connections from the same machine. This latter behaviour can be leveraged into a denial-of-service attack on third-party machines.
},
	isbn = {978-3-540-68790-0},
	doi = {10.1007/11957454},
	url = {http://www.springerlink.com/content/7224582654260k03/},
	author = {Richard Clayton and Steven J. Murdoch and Robert N. M. Watson},
	editor = {George Danezis and Philippe Golle}
}

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