Nutrient additions to a tropical rain forest drive substantial soil carbon dioxide losses to the atmosphere. Cleveland, C. C. & Townsend, A. R. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 103(27):10316–10321, July, 2006.
Nutrient additions to a tropical rain forest drive substantial soil carbon dioxide losses to the atmosphere [link]Paper  doi  abstract   bibtex   
Terrestrial biosphere–atmosphere carbon dioxide (CO2) exchange is dominated by tropical forests, where photosynthetic carbon (C) uptake is thought to be phosphorus (P)-limited. In P-poor tropical forests, P may also limit organic matter decomposition and soil C losses. We conducted a field-fertilization experiment to show that P fertilization stimulates soil respiration in a lowland tropical rain forest in Costa Rica. In the early wet season, when soluble organic matter inputs to soil are high, P fertilization drove large increases in soil respiration. Although the P-stimulated increase in soil respiration was largely confined to the dry-to-wet season transition, the seasonal increase was sufficient to drive an 18% annual increase in CO2 efflux from the P-fertilized plots. Nitrogen (N) fertilization caused similar responses, and the net increases in soil respiration in response to the additions of N and P approached annual soil C fluxes in mid-latitude forests. Human activities are altering natural patterns of tropical soil N and P availability by land conversion and enhanced atmospheric deposition. Although our data suggest that the mechanisms driving the observed respiratory responses to increased N and P may be different, the large CO2 losses stimulated by N and P fertilization suggest that knowledge of such patterns and their effects on soil CO2 efflux is critical for understanding the role of tropical forests in a rapidly changing global C cycle.
@article{cleveland_nutrient_2006,
	title = {Nutrient additions to a tropical rain forest drive substantial soil carbon dioxide losses to the atmosphere},
	volume = {103},
	issn = {0027-8424, 1091-6490},
	url = {http://www.pnas.org/content/103/27/10316},
	doi = {10.1073/pnas.0600989103},
	abstract = {Terrestrial biosphere–atmosphere carbon dioxide (CO2) exchange is dominated by tropical forests, where photosynthetic carbon (C) uptake is thought to be phosphorus (P)-limited. In P-poor tropical forests, P may also limit organic matter decomposition and soil C losses. We conducted a field-fertilization experiment to show that P fertilization stimulates soil respiration in a lowland tropical rain forest in Costa Rica. In the early wet season, when soluble organic matter inputs to soil are high, P fertilization drove large increases in soil respiration. Although the P-stimulated increase in soil respiration was largely confined to the dry-to-wet season transition, the seasonal increase was sufficient to drive an 18\% annual increase in CO2 efflux from the P-fertilized plots. Nitrogen (N) fertilization caused similar responses, and the net increases in soil respiration in response to the additions of N and P approached annual soil C fluxes in mid-latitude forests. Human activities are altering natural patterns of tropical soil N and P availability by land conversion and enhanced atmospheric deposition. Although our data suggest that the mechanisms driving the observed respiratory responses to increased N and P may be different, the large CO2 losses stimulated by N and P fertilization suggest that knowledge of such patterns and their effects on soil CO2 efflux is critical for understanding the role of tropical forests in a rapidly changing global C cycle.},
	language = {en},
	number = {27},
	urldate = {2017-10-30},
	journal = {Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences},
	author = {Cleveland, Cory C. and Townsend, Alan R.},
	month = jul,
	year = {2006},
	pmid = {16793925},
	keywords = {carbon cycle, nitrogen, nutrient availability, phosphorus, soil respiration},
	pages = {10316--10321}
}

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