Large upper tropospheric ozone enhancements above midlatitude North America during summer: In situ evidence from the IONS and MOZAIC ozone measurement network. Cooper, O., R., Stohl, A., Trainer, M., Thompson, A., M., Witte, J., C., Oltmans, S., J., Morris, G., Pickering, K., E., Crawford, J., H., Chen, G., Cohen, R., C., Bertram, T., H., Wooldridge, P., Perring, A., Brune, W., H., Merrill, J., Moody, J., L., Tarasick, D., Nedelec, P., Forbes, G., Newchurch, M., J., Schmidlin, F., J., Johnson, B., J., Turquety, S., Baughcum, S., L., Ren, X., Fehsenfeld, F., C., Meagher, J., F., Spichtinger, N., Brown, C., C., McKeen, S., A., McDermid, I., S., & Leblanc, T. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 2006.
Large upper tropospheric ozone enhancements above midlatitude North America during summer: In situ evidence from the IONS and MOZAIC ozone measurement network [link]Website  abstract   bibtex   
The most extensive set of free tropospheric ozone measurements ever compiled across midlatitude North America was measured with daily ozonesondes, commercial aircraft and a lidar at 14 sites during July-August 2004. The model estimated stratospheric ozone was subtracted from all profiles, leaving a tropospheric residual ozone. On average the upper troposphere above midlatitude eastern North America contained 15 ppbv more tropospheric residual ozone than the more polluted layer between the surface and 2 km above sea level. Lowest ozone values in the upper troposphere were found above the two upwind sites in California. The upper troposphere above midlatitude eastern North America contained 16 ppbv more tropospheric residual ozone than the upper troposphere above three upwind sites, with the greatest enhancement above Houston, Texas, at 24 ppbv. Upper tropospheric CO measurements above east Texas show no statistically significant enhancement compared to west coast measurements, arguing against a strong influence from fresh surface anthropogenic emissions to the upper troposphere above Texas where the ozone enhancement is greatest. Vertical mixing of ozone from the boundary layer to the upper troposphere can only account for 2 ppbv of the 16 ppbv ozone enhancement above eastern North America; therefore the remaining 14 ppbv must be the result of in situ ozone production. The transport of NO(x) tracers from North American anthropogenic, biogenic, biomass burning, and lightning emissions was simulated for the upper troposphere of North America with a particle dispersion model. Additional box model calculations suggest the 24 ppbv ozone enhancement above Houston can be produced over a 10 day period from oxidation reactions of lightning NOx and background mixing ratios of CO and CH(4). Overall, we estimate that 69-84% (11-13 ppbv) of the 16 ppbv ozone enhancement above eastern North America is due to in situ ozone production from lightning NO(x) with the remainder due to transport of ozone from the surface or in situ ozone production from other sources of NO(x).
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 title = {Large upper tropospheric ozone enhancements above midlatitude North America during summer: In situ evidence from the IONS and MOZAIC ozone measurement network},
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 year = {2006},
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 notes = {<b>From Duplicate 1 (<i>Large upper tropospheric ozone enhancements above midlatitude North America during summer: In situ evidence from the IONS and MOZAIC ozone measurement network</i> - Cooper, O R; Stohl, A; Trainer, M; Thompson, A M; Witte, J C; Oltmans, S J; Morris, G; Pickering, K E; Crawford, J H; Chen, G; Cohen, R C; Bertram, T H; Wooldridge, P; Perring, A; Brune, W H; Merrill, J; Moody, J L; Tarasick, D; Nedelec, P; Forbes, G; Newchurch, M J; Schmidlin, F J; Johnson, B J; Turquety, S; Baughcum, S L; Ren, X; Fehsenfeld, F C; Meagher, J F; Spichtinger, N; Brown, C C; McKeen, S A; McDermid, I S; Leblanc, T)<br/></b><br/><b>From Duplicate 2 (<i>Large upper tropospheric ozone enhancements above midlatitude North America during summer: In situ evidence from the IONS and MOZAIC ozone measurement network</i> - Cooper, O R; Stohl, A; Trainer, M; Thompson, A M; Witte, J C; Oltmans, S J; Morris, G; Pickering, K E; Crawford, J H; Chen, G; Cohen, R C; Bertram, T H; Wooldridge, P; Perring, A; Brune, W H; Merrill, J; Moody, J L; Tarasick, D; Nedelec, P; Forbes, G; Newchurch, M J; Schmidlin, F J; Johnson, B J; Turquety, S; Baughcum, S L; Ren, X; Fehsenfeld, F C; Meagher, J F; Spichtinger, N; Brown, C C; McKeen, S A; McDermid, I S; Leblanc, T)<br/></b><br/>118LE<br/>Times Cited:43<br/>Cited References Count:57},
 abstract = {The most extensive set of free tropospheric ozone measurements ever compiled across midlatitude North America was measured with daily ozonesondes, commercial aircraft and a lidar at 14 sites during July-August 2004. The model estimated stratospheric ozone was subtracted from all profiles, leaving a tropospheric residual ozone. On average the upper troposphere above midlatitude eastern North America contained 15 ppbv more tropospheric residual ozone than the more polluted layer between the surface and 2 km above sea level. Lowest ozone values in the upper troposphere were found above the two upwind sites in California. The upper troposphere above midlatitude eastern North America contained 16 ppbv more tropospheric residual ozone than the upper troposphere above three upwind sites, with the greatest enhancement above Houston, Texas, at 24 ppbv. Upper tropospheric CO measurements above east Texas show no statistically significant enhancement compared to west coast measurements, arguing against a strong influence from fresh surface anthropogenic emissions to the upper troposphere above Texas where the ozone enhancement is greatest. Vertical mixing of ozone from the boundary layer to the upper troposphere can only account for 2 ppbv of the 16 ppbv ozone enhancement above eastern North America; therefore the remaining 14 ppbv must be the result of in situ ozone production. The transport of NO(x) tracers from North American anthropogenic, biogenic, biomass burning, and lightning emissions was simulated for the upper troposphere of North America with a particle dispersion model. Additional box model calculations suggest the 24 ppbv ozone enhancement above Houston can be produced over a 10 day period from oxidation reactions of lightning NOx and background mixing ratios of CO and CH(4). Overall, we estimate that 69-84% (11-13 ppbv) of the 16 ppbv ozone enhancement above eastern North America is due to in situ ozone production from lightning NO(x) with the remainder due to transport of ozone from the surface or in situ ozone production from other sources of NO(x).},
 bibtype = {article},
 author = {Cooper, O R and Stohl, A and Trainer, M and Thompson, A M and Witte, J C and Oltmans, S J and Morris, G and Pickering, K E and Crawford, J H and Chen, G and Cohen, R C and Bertram, T H and Wooldridge, P and Perring, A and Brune, W H and Merrill, J and Moody, J L and Tarasick, D and Nedelec, P and Forbes, G and Newchurch, M J and Schmidlin, F J and Johnson, B J and Turquety, S and Baughcum, S L and Ren, X and Fehsenfeld, F C and Meagher, J F and Spichtinger, N and Brown, C C and McKeen, S A and McDermid, I S and Leblanc, T},
 journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres},
 number = {D24}
}
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