Effects and Tolerance of Protein and Energy-Enriched Formula in Infants Following Congenital Heart Surgery: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Cui, Y., Li, L., Hu, C., Shi, H., Li, J., Gupta, R. K., Liang, H., Chen, X., & Gong, S. JPEN. Journal of parenteral and enteral nutrition, 42(1):196–204, January, 2018.
Effects and Tolerance of Protein and Energy-Enriched Formula in Infants Following Congenital Heart Surgery: A Randomized Controlled Trial. [link]Paper  doi  abstract   bibtex   
BACKGROUND:Nutrition support is important for clinical management to improve outcomes of infants following congenital heart surgery. Protein-enriched and energy-enriched formula (PE-formula) may help provide adequate nutrition and promote wound healing. However, the effects and tolerance of increased protein and energy intakes of these infants have not been well defined. OBJECTIVE:To evaluate nutrition effects and tolerance of a PE-formula compared with the standard formula (S-formula) in infants in the first 5 days after congenital heart surgery. METHODS:Fifty infants were randomly assigned to S-formula (S-group, n = 24) or PE-formula (PE-group, n = 26). Daily nutrient intakes and tolerance were recorded. Plasma amino acid concentrations were measured. Cumulative energy balance and nitrogen balance were calculated. RESULTS:Nutrient intakes were significantly higher in the PE-group after day 1, and all met the adequate intakes as early as day 2. Nitrogen balance in the PE-group met positive balance from day 2, whereas in the S-group, this was not until day 5. The PE-group also had a significantly higher increase in many essential amino acids. With the exception of tolerable diarrhea (multivariate adjusted hazard ratio, 3.16; 95% confidence interval, 1.24-8.01), the PE-group did not have a significantly higher incidence of intolerable events. CONCLUSIONS:In infants during the early postoperative period after congenital heart surgery, early administration of PE-formula was as well tolerated as S-formula and effective in achieving higher nutrition intakes and earlier nitrogen balance. Further research is warranted to support the use of PE-formula in this special group of infants.
@article{cui_effects_2018,
	title = {Effects and {Tolerance} of {Protein} and {Energy}-{Enriched} {Formula} in {Infants} {Following} {Congenital} {Heart} {Surgery}: {A} {Randomized} {Controlled} {Trial}.},
	volume = {42},
	url = {http://eutils.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/eutils/elink.fcgi?dbfrom=pubmed&id=29505140&retmode=ref&cmd=prlinks},
	doi = {10.1002/jpen.1031},
	abstract = {BACKGROUND:Nutrition support is important for clinical management to improve outcomes of infants following congenital heart surgery. Protein-enriched and energy-enriched formula (PE-formula) may help provide adequate nutrition and promote wound healing. However, the effects and tolerance of increased protein and energy intakes of these infants have not been well defined.

OBJECTIVE:To evaluate nutrition effects and tolerance of a PE-formula compared with the standard formula (S-formula) in infants in the first 5 days after congenital heart surgery.

METHODS:Fifty infants were randomly assigned to S-formula (S-group, n = 24) or PE-formula (PE-group, n = 26). Daily nutrient intakes and tolerance were recorded. Plasma amino acid concentrations were measured. Cumulative energy balance and nitrogen balance were calculated.

RESULTS:Nutrient intakes were significantly higher in the PE-group after day 1, and all met the adequate intakes as early as day 2. Nitrogen balance in the PE-group met positive balance from day 2, whereas in the S-group, this was not until day 5. The PE-group also had a significantly higher increase in many essential amino acids. With the exception of tolerable diarrhea (multivariate adjusted hazard ratio, 3.16; 95\% confidence interval, 1.24-8.01), the PE-group did not have a significantly higher incidence of intolerable events.

CONCLUSIONS:In infants during the early postoperative period after congenital heart surgery, early administration of PE-formula was as well tolerated as S-formula and effective in achieving higher nutrition intakes and earlier nitrogen balance. Further research is warranted to support the use of PE-formula in this special group of infants.},
	number = {1},
	journal = {JPEN. Journal of parenteral and enteral nutrition},
	author = {Cui, Yanqin and Li, Lijuan and Hu, Chunmei and Shi, Hui and Li, Jianbin and Gupta, Ramit Kumar and Liang, Huiying and Chen, Xinxin and Gong, Sitang},
	month = jan,
	year = {2018},
	pages = {196--204},
}

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