Particle analysis by laser mass spectrometry (PALMS) studies of ice nuclei and other low number density particles. Cziczo, D., J., Thomson, D., S., Thompson, T., L., DeMott, P., J., & Murphy, D., M. International Journal Of Mass Spectrometry, 258(1-3):21-29, 2006.
Particle analysis by laser mass spectrometry (PALMS) studies of ice nuclei and other low number density particles [link]Website  abstract   bibtex   
It has been shown that particles which effectively initiate freezing, known as ice nuclei (IN), are normally found at concentrations less than 101(-1) in the background atmosphere. The low number density of these particles has presented significant analytical challenges, and determination of the size and composition, and thus the origin, of these particles has historically relied upon electron microscopy (EM). Single particle mass spectrometers can provide better time resolution and reduced sampling artifacts. The modifications to the particle analysis by laser mass spectrometry (PALMS) instrument, a laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometer, required to efficiently size and analyze particles with very low number density, are described here. A comparison to traditional EM studies is made and future applications of this method to solve other contemporary atmospheric problems are also discussed. (c) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
@article{
 title = {Particle analysis by laser mass spectrometry (PALMS) studies of ice nuclei and other low number density particles},
 type = {article},
 year = {2006},
 keywords = {Single aerosol-particles,aerosol mass spectrometry,chemical-composition,ice nuclei,idaho-hill,induced ion formation,instrument,laser desorption/ionization,real-time,size,tests,thresholds,vacuum},
 pages = {21-29},
 volume = {258},
 websites = {<Go to ISI>://000242258600004},
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 abstract = {It has been shown that particles which effectively initiate freezing, known as ice nuclei (IN), are normally found at concentrations less than 101(-1) in the background atmosphere. The low number density of these particles has presented significant analytical challenges, and determination of the size and composition, and thus the origin, of these particles has historically relied upon electron microscopy (EM). Single particle mass spectrometers can provide better time resolution and reduced sampling artifacts. The modifications to the particle analysis by laser mass spectrometry (PALMS) instrument, a laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometer, required to efficiently size and analyze particles with very low number density, are described here. A comparison to traditional EM studies is made and future applications of this method to solve other contemporary atmospheric problems are also discussed. (c) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.},
 bibtype = {article},
 author = {Cziczo, D J and Thomson, D S and Thompson, T L and DeMott, P J and Murphy, D M},
 journal = {International Journal Of Mass Spectrometry},
 number = {1-3}
}
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