Visuospatial bootstrapping: Implicit binding of verbal working memory to visuospatial representations in children and adults. Darling, S.; Parker, M.; Goodall, K., E.; Havelka, J.; and Allen, R., J. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 119:112-119, 2014.
Visuospatial bootstrapping: Implicit binding of verbal working memory to visuospatial representations in children and adults [pdf]Paper  Visuospatial bootstrapping: Implicit binding of verbal working memory to visuospatial representations in children and adults [link]Website  abstract   bibtex   
a b s t r a c t When participants carry out visually presented digit serial recall, their performance is better if they are given the opportunity to encode extra visuospatial information at encoding—a phenomenon that has been termed visuospatial bootstrapping. This bootstrapping is the result of integration of information from different modality-specific short-term memory systems and visuospatial knowledge in long term memory, and it can be understood in the context of recent models of working memory that address multimodal bind-ing (e.g., models incorporating an episodic buffer). Here we report a cross-sectional developmental study that demonstrated visuospa-tial bootstrapping in adults (n = 18) and 9-year-old children (n = 15) but not in 6-year-old children (n = 18). This is the first developmental study addressing visuospatial bootstrapping, and results demonstrate that the developmental trajectory of boot-strapping is different from that of basic verbal and visuospatial working memory. This pattern suggests that bootstrapping (and hence integrative functions such as those associated with the epi-sodic buffer) emerge independent of the development of basic working memory slave systems during childhood.
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 title = {Visuospatial bootstrapping: Implicit binding of verbal working memory to visuospatial representations in children and adults},
 type = {article},
 year = {2014},
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 keywords = {Bootstrapping,Episodic Buffer,Spatial memory,Verbal memory,Visual memory,Working memory},
 pages = {112-119},
 volume = {119},
 websites = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jecp.2013.10.004},
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 abstract = {a b s t r a c t When participants carry out visually presented digit serial recall, their performance is better if they are given the opportunity to encode extra visuospatial information at encoding—a phenomenon that has been termed visuospatial bootstrapping. This bootstrapping is the result of integration of information from different modality-specific short-term memory systems and visuospatial knowledge in long term memory, and it can be understood in the context of recent models of working memory that address multimodal bind-ing (e.g., models incorporating an episodic buffer). Here we report a cross-sectional developmental study that demonstrated visuospa-tial bootstrapping in adults (n = 18) and 9-year-old children (n = 15) but not in 6-year-old children (n = 18). This is the first developmental study addressing visuospatial bootstrapping, and results demonstrate that the developmental trajectory of boot-strapping is different from that of basic verbal and visuospatial working memory. This pattern suggests that bootstrapping (and hence integrative functions such as those associated with the epi-sodic buffer) emerge independent of the development of basic working memory slave systems during childhood.},
 bibtype = {article},
 author = {Darling, Stephen and Parker, Mary-Jane and Goodall, Karen E and Havelka, Jelena and Allen, Richard J},
 journal = {Journal of Experimental Child Psychology}
}
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