Chemical-constituents in the air and snow at dye-3, greenland .1. Seasonal-variations. Davidson, C., I.; Jaffrezo, J., L.; Mosher, B., W.; Dibb, J., E.; Borys, R., D.; Bodhaine, B., A.; Rasmussen, R., A.; Boutron, C., F.; Gorlach, U.; Cachier, H.; Ducret, J.; Colin, J., L.; Heidam, N., Z.; Kemp, K.; and Hillamo, R. Atmos Environ Pt A-Gen Top, 27:2709-2722, 1993.
abstract   bibtex   
Chemical constituent concentrations in air and snow from the Dye 3 Gas and Aerosol Sampling Program show distinct seasonal patterns. These patterns are different from those observed at sea-level sites throughout the Arctic. Airborne SO42and several trace metals of crustal and anthropogenic origin show strong peaks in the spring, mostly in April, Some species also have secondary maxima in the fall. The spring peaks are attributed to transport over the Pole from Eurasian sources, as well as transport from eastern North America and western Europe. The fall peaks are attributed primarily to transport from North America, and less frequent transport from Europe. Airborne Be-7 and Pb-210 show strong peaks in both spring and fall, suggesting that vertical atmospheric mixing is favored during these two seasons. Several other airborne constituents peak at other times. For example, Na peaks in winter due to transport of seaspray from storms in ice-free oceanic areas, while MSA peaks in summer due to biogenic production in the oceans nearby. Many trace gases such as freons and other chlorine-containing species show roughly uniform concentrations throughout the year. CO and CH4 show weak peaks in February-March. Concentrations of chemical constituents in fresh snow at Dye 3 also show distinct seasonal patterns. SO42- and several trace metals show springtime maxima, consistent with the aerosol data. Na shows a winter maximum and MSA shows a summer maximum in the snow, also consistent with the aerosols. Be-7 and Pb-210 in the snow do not show any strong variation with season. Similarly, soot and total carbon in snow do not show strong variation. When used with dry deposition models, these air and snow concentration data suggest that dry deposition of submicron aerosol species has relatively minor influence on constituent levels in the snowpack at Dye 3 compared to wet deposition inputs(including scavenging by fog); crustal aerosol, on the other hand, may have a more significant input by dry deposition. Overall, the results suggest that gross seasonal patterns of some aerosol species are constistent in the air and in fresh snow, although individual episodes in the air are not always reflected in the snow. The differences in data reported here compared with data sets for sea-level arctic sites demonstrate the need for sampling programs on the Ice Sheet in order to properly interpret Greenland glacial record data. C1 CNRS,GLACIOL & GEOPHYS ENVIRONNEMENT LAB,F-38402 ST MARTIN DHERES,FRANCE. UNIV NEW HAMPSHIRE,INST STUDY EARTH OCEANS & SPACE,DURHAM,NH 03824. DESERT RES INST,CTR ATMOSPHER SCI,RENO,NV 89506. NOAA,CMDL,BOULDER,CO 80303. OREGON GRAD INST SCI & TECHNOL,BEAVERTON,OR 97006. CEA,CNRS,CTR FAIBLES RADIOACT,F-91198 GIF SUR YVETTE,FRANCE. UNIV PARIS 07,PHYSICOCHIM ATMOSPHERE LAB,F-75251 PARIS,FRANCE. NATL INST ENVIRONM RES,DK-4000 ROSKILDE,DENMARK. FINNISH METEOROL INST,SF-00810 HELSINKI,FINLAND.
@article{
 title = {Chemical-constituents in the air and snow at dye-3, greenland .1. Seasonal-variations},
 type = {article},
 year = {1993},
 pages = {2709-2722},
 volume = {27},
 id = {8430a7a5-9b4b-3b5d-9f1c-8fd2382071f2},
 created = {2014-10-08T16:28:18.000Z},
 file_attached = {false},
 profile_id = {363623ef-1990-38f1-b354-f5cdaa6548b2},
 group_id = {02267cec-5558-3876-9cfc-78d056bad5b9},
 last_modified = {2017-03-14T17:32:24.802Z},
 read = {false},
 starred = {false},
 authored = {false},
 confirmed = {true},
 hidden = {false},
 citation_key = {Davidson:AEPAGT:1993b},
 source_type = {article},
 private_publication = {false},
 abstract = {Chemical constituent concentrations in air and snow
from the Dye 3 Gas and Aerosol Sampling Program show distinct
seasonal patterns. These patterns are different from those observed
at sea-level sites throughout the Arctic. Airborne SO42and
several trace metals of crustal and anthropogenic origin show
strong peaks in the spring, mostly in April, Some species also have
secondary maxima in the fall. The spring peaks are attributed to
transport over the Pole from Eurasian sources, as well as transport
from eastern North America and western Europe. The fall peaks are
attributed primarily to transport from North America, and less
frequent transport from Europe. Airborne Be-7 and Pb-210 show
strong peaks in both spring and fall, suggesting that vertical
atmospheric mixing is favored during these two seasons. Several
other airborne constituents peak at other times. For example, Na
peaks in winter due to transport of seaspray from storms in
ice-free oceanic areas, while MSA peaks in summer due to biogenic
production in the oceans nearby. Many trace gases such as freons
and other chlorine-containing species show roughly uniform
concentrations throughout the year. CO and CH4 show weak peaks in
February-March. Concentrations of chemical constituents in fresh
snow at Dye 3 also show distinct seasonal patterns. SO42- and
several trace metals show springtime maxima, consistent with the
aerosol data. Na shows a winter maximum and MSA shows a summer
maximum in the snow, also consistent with the aerosols. Be-7 and
Pb-210 in the snow do not show any strong variation with season.
Similarly, soot and total carbon in snow do not show strong
variation. When used with dry deposition models, these air and snow
concentration data suggest that dry deposition of submicron aerosol
species has relatively minor influence on constituent levels in the
snowpack at Dye 3 compared to wet deposition inputs(including
scavenging by fog); crustal aerosol, on the other hand, may have a
more significant input by dry deposition. Overall, the results
suggest that gross seasonal patterns of some aerosol species are
constistent in the air and in fresh snow, although individual
episodes in the air are not always reflected in the snow. The
differences in data reported here compared with data sets for
sea-level arctic sites demonstrate the need for sampling programs
on the Ice Sheet in order to properly interpret Greenland glacial
record data.
C1 CNRS,GLACIOL & GEOPHYS ENVIRONNEMENT LAB,F-38402 ST MARTIN
DHERES,FRANCE. UNIV NEW HAMPSHIRE,INST STUDY EARTH OCEANS &
SPACE,DURHAM,NH 03824. DESERT RES INST,CTR ATMOSPHER SCI,RENO,NV
89506.
NOAA,CMDL,BOULDER,CO 80303.
OREGON GRAD INST SCI & TECHNOL,BEAVERTON,OR 97006.
CEA,CNRS,CTR FAIBLES RADIOACT,F-91198 GIF SUR YVETTE,FRANCE. UNIV
PARIS 07,PHYSICOCHIM ATMOSPHERE LAB,F-75251 PARIS,FRANCE. NATL INST
ENVIRONM RES,DK-4000 ROSKILDE,DENMARK.
FINNISH METEOROL INST,SF-00810 HELSINKI,FINLAND.
},
 bibtype = {article},
 author = {Davidson, C I and Jaffrezo, J L and Mosher, B W and Dibb, J E and Borys, R D and Bodhaine, B A and Rasmussen, R A and Boutron, C F and Gorlach, U and Cachier, H and Ducret, J and Colin, J L and Heidam, N Z and Kemp, K and Hillamo, R},
 journal = {Atmos Environ Pt A-Gen Top}
}
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