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Collisions between planetesimals in the early solar system were a common and fundamental process. Most collisions occurred at an oblique incidence angle, yet the influence of impact angle on heating in collisions is not fully understood. We have conducted a series of shock physics simulations to quantify oblique heating processes, and find that both impact angle and target curvature are important in quantifying the amount of heating in a collision. We find an expression to estimate the heating in an oblique collision compared to that in a vertical incidence collision. We have used this expression to quantify heating in the Rhealsilvia-forming impact on Vesta, and find that there is slightly more heating in a 45° impact than in a vertical impact. Finally, we apply these results to Monte Carlo simulations of collisional processes in the early solar system, and determine the overall effect of impact obliquity from the range of impacts that occurred on a meteorite parent body. For those bodies that survived 100 Myr without disruption, it is not necessary to account for the natural variation in impact angle, as the amount of heating was well approximated by a fixed impact angle of 45°. However, for disruptive impacts, this natural variation in impact angle should be accounted for, as around a quarter of bodies were globally heated by at least 100 K in a variable-angle model, an order of magnitude higher than under an assumption of a fixed angle of 45°.

@article{davison_effect_2014, title = {The effect of impact obliquity on shock heating in planetesimal collisions}, volume = {49}, copyright = {© The Meteoritical Society, 2014.}, issn = {1945-5100}, url = {http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/maps.12394/abstract}, doi = {10.1111/maps.12394}, abstract = {Collisions between planetesimals in the early solar system were a common and fundamental process. Most collisions occurred at an oblique incidence angle, yet the influence of impact angle on heating in collisions is not fully understood. We have conducted a series of shock physics simulations to quantify oblique heating processes, and find that both impact angle and target curvature are important in quantifying the amount of heating in a collision. We find an expression to estimate the heating in an oblique collision compared to that in a vertical incidence collision. We have used this expression to quantify heating in the Rhealsilvia-forming impact on Vesta, and find that there is slightly more heating in a 45° impact than in a vertical impact. Finally, we apply these results to Monte Carlo simulations of collisional processes in the early solar system, and determine the overall effect of impact obliquity from the range of impacts that occurred on a meteorite parent body. For those bodies that survived 100 Myr without disruption, it is not necessary to account for the natural variation in impact angle, as the amount of heating was well approximated by a fixed impact angle of 45°. However, for disruptive impacts, this natural variation in impact angle should be accounted for, as around a quarter of bodies were globally heated by at least 100 K in a variable-angle model, an order of magnitude higher than under an assumption of a fixed angle of 45°.}, language = {en}, number = {12}, urldate = {2015-09-02}, journal = {Meteoritics \& Planetary Science}, author = {Davison, Thomas M. and Ciesla, Fred J. and Collins, Gareth S. and Elbeshausen, Dirk}, month = dec, year = {2014}, pages = {2252--2265} }

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