Recent sea level trends and accelerations: Comparison of tide gauge and satellite results. Dean, R. G. and Houston, J. R. 75:4–9.
Recent sea level trends and accelerations: Comparison of tide gauge and satellite results [link]Paper  doi  abstract   bibtex   
A comprehensive set of 456 monthly tide gauge records is analyzed for trend and acceleration over the same period that satellite altimetry was analyzed (1993 to 2011). Additionally, a 90 tide gauge record subset is analyzed for which GPS data are available. The selection criterion for the tide gauge data is 85% data completion. All measurements are adjusted for vertical land motion. Results from 456 pairs of tide gauges, adjusted for Global Isostatic Adjustment, and satellite recordings located within 1° root-mean-square latitude and longitude separation differences are compared. The tide gauge trends and accelerations are adjusted for spatial bias using the more globally dense satellite data. The average trends of the 456 and 90 gauge sets (3.26 and 2.68mm/year, respectively) agree reasonably well with the global trend average of the satellite data (3.09mm/year). Average trends for the 456 tide gauges are also in good agreement (within 95% confidence limits) with trends based on satellite data within the 1° satellite proximity criterion (3.26 and 3.31mm/year, respectively). The trends for the 90 gauges with GPS nearby and qualifying satellite locations are 2.68 and 2.74mm/year, respectively. For all datasets analyzed, the accelerations are quite strongly negative but the uncertainty is relatively large. Adjustment of the tide gauge trends for spatial bias modified both trends and accelerations significantly and decreased trend differences between the 456 and 90 gauge datasets. The spatially adjusted tide gauge trends (2.95 and 2.72mm/year, respectively for the 456 and 90 tide gauges sets) are somewhat less than the 1° spatially adjusted satellite data (3.09mm/year). Whether the increased sea level trend of approximately 3mm/year measured by the satellites since the 1990's is a long-term increase from the 20th Century value of approximately 1.7mm/year or part of a cycle will require longer records; however, the negative accelerations support some cyclic character.
@article{dean_recent_2013,
	title = {Recent sea level trends and accelerations: Comparison of tide gauge and satellite results},
	volume = {75},
	issn = {0378-3839},
	url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378383913000082},
	doi = {10.1016/j.coastaleng.2013.01.001},
	shorttitle = {Recent sea level trends and accelerations},
	abstract = {A comprehensive set of 456 monthly tide gauge records is analyzed for trend and acceleration over the same period that satellite altimetry was analyzed (1993 to 2011). Additionally, a 90 tide gauge record subset is analyzed for which {GPS} data are available. The selection criterion for the tide gauge data is 85\% data completion. All measurements are adjusted for vertical land motion. Results from 456 pairs of tide gauges, adjusted for Global Isostatic Adjustment, and satellite recordings located within 1° root-mean-square latitude and longitude separation differences are compared. The tide gauge trends and accelerations are adjusted for spatial bias using the more globally dense satellite data. The average trends of the 456 and 90 gauge sets (3.26 and 2.68mm/year, respectively) agree reasonably well with the global trend average of the satellite data (3.09mm/year). Average trends for the 456 tide gauges are also in good agreement (within 95\% confidence limits) with trends based on satellite data within the 1° satellite proximity criterion (3.26 and 3.31mm/year, respectively). The trends for the 90 gauges with {GPS} nearby and qualifying satellite locations are 2.68 and 2.74mm/year, respectively. For all datasets analyzed, the accelerations are quite strongly negative but the uncertainty is relatively large. Adjustment of the tide gauge trends for spatial bias modified both trends and accelerations significantly and decreased trend differences between the 456 and 90 gauge datasets. The spatially adjusted tide gauge trends (2.95 and 2.72mm/year, respectively for the 456 and 90 tide gauges sets) are somewhat less than the 1° spatially adjusted satellite data (3.09mm/year). Whether the increased sea level trend of approximately 3mm/year measured by the satellites since the 1990's is a long-term increase from the 20th Century value of approximately 1.7mm/year or part of a cycle will require longer records; however, the negative accelerations support some cyclic character.},
	pages = {4--9},
	journaltitle = {Coastal Engineering},
	shortjournal = {Coastal Engineering},
	author = {Dean, R. G. and Houston, J. R.},
	urldate = {2019-04-17},
	date = {2013-05-01},
	keywords = {Satellite altimetry, Sea level acceleration, Sea level rise, Tide gauge records}
}
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