A Molecular Genetic Assessment of Sex Ratios from Pre- fledged Juvenile and Migrating Adult Common Loons (Gavia immer). Debiak, A., L.; Mccormick, D., L.; Kaplan, J., D.; Tischler, B.; and Lindsay, A., R. Waterbirds, 37(Special Publication 1):6-15, 2014.
A Molecular Genetic Assessment of Sex Ratios from Pre- fledged Juvenile and Migrating Adult Common Loons (Gavia immer) [link]Website  abstract   bibtex   
We used a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based sex identification technique to evaluate the sex ratios of pre-fledged juvenile Common Loons (Gavia immer) from three breeding populations in northern Michigan and northern Wisconsin, and of dead adult Common Loons migrating through Lake Huron. Results of these analyses show that more juvenile males than females fledged from all three breeding populations, although none of these biases differed significantly from parity. The sex ratio of migratory adults was at parity. No parental or territory quality indicators were significantly associated with the sex of chicks fledged from one intensely studied northern Michigan population at Seney National Wildlife Refuge. A significant male bias in adult re-observation of Common Loons banded as juveniles at the wildlife refuge was not solely attributable to the modest male bias recorded at fledging, and thus suggests a pattern of female-biased post-fledging mortality and/or female-biased adult dispersal in Common Loons.
@article{
 title = {A Molecular Genetic Assessment of Sex Ratios from Pre- fledged Juvenile and Migrating Adult Common Loons (Gavia immer)},
 type = {article},
 year = {2014},
 identifiers = {[object Object]},
 keywords = {botulism,common loon,dispersal,gavia immer,gaviidae,migration,natal philopatry,sex chromosomes,sex ratio,sex-bias},
 pages = {6-15},
 volume = {37},
 websites = {http://www.bioone.org/doi/full/10.1675/063.037.sp103},
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 abstract = {We used a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based sex identification technique to evaluate the sex ratios of pre-fledged juvenile Common Loons (Gavia immer) from three breeding populations in northern Michigan and northern Wisconsin, and of dead adult Common Loons migrating through Lake Huron. Results of these analyses show that more juvenile males than females fledged from all three breeding populations, although none of these biases differed significantly from parity. The sex ratio of migratory adults was at parity. No parental or territory quality indicators were significantly associated with the sex of chicks fledged from one intensely studied northern Michigan population at Seney National Wildlife Refuge. A significant male bias in adult re-observation of Common Loons banded as juveniles at the wildlife refuge was not solely attributable to the modest male bias recorded at fledging, and thus suggests a pattern of female-biased post-fledging mortality and/or female-biased adult dispersal in Common Loons.},
 bibtype = {article},
 author = {Debiak, Abigail L and Mccormick, Damon L and Kaplan, Joseph D and Tischler, B and Lindsay, Alec R},
 journal = {Waterbirds},
 number = {Special Publication 1}
}
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