Quasi-digital front-ends for current measurement in integrated circuits with giant magnetoresistance technology. De Marcellis, A.; Cubells-Beltran, M.; Reig, C.; Madrenas, J.; Zadov, B.; Paperno, E.; Cardoso, S.; and Freitas, P. P. IET CIRCUITS DEVICES & SYSTEMS, 8(4):291-300, JUL, 2014.
doi  abstract   bibtex   
In this study, the authors report on two different electronic interfaces for low-power integrated circuits electric current monitoring through current-to-frequency (I-f) conversion schemes. This proposal displays the intrinsic advantages of the quasi-digital systems regarding direct interfacing and self-calibrating capabilities. In addition, as current-sensing devices, they have made use of the giant magnetoresistance (GMR) technology because of its high sensitivity and compatibility with standard complementary metal oxide semiconductor processes. Single elements and Wheatstone bridges based on spin-valves and magnetic tunnel junctions have been considered. In this sense, schematic-level simulations for integration in Austria Microsystems 0.35 mu m technology have been corroborated by means of experimental measurements with the help of printed circuit board prototypes and real GMR devices. Tables with relevant parameters (silicon area, power consumption, sensitivity etc.) have been constructed as practical tools for designers. Electric currents down to 2 mu A have been resolved in this way.
@article{ ISI:000340128500007,
Author = {De Marcellis, Andrea and Cubells-Beltran, Maria-Dolores and Reig, Candid
   and Madrenas, Jordi and Zadov, Boris and Paperno, Eugene and Cardoso,
   Susana and Freitas, Paulo P.},
Title = {{Quasi-digital front-ends for current measurement in integrated circuits
   with giant magnetoresistance technology}},
Journal = {{IET CIRCUITS DEVICES \& SYSTEMS}},
Year = {{2014}},
Volume = {{8}},
Number = {{4}},
Pages = {{291-300}},
Month = {{JUL}},
Abstract = {{In this study, the authors report on two different electronic interfaces
   for low-power integrated circuits electric current monitoring through
   current-to-frequency (I-f) conversion schemes. This proposal displays
   the intrinsic advantages of the quasi-digital systems regarding direct
   interfacing and self-calibrating capabilities. In addition, as
   current-sensing devices, they have made use of the giant
   magnetoresistance (GMR) technology because of its high sensitivity and
   compatibility with standard complementary metal oxide semiconductor
   processes. Single elements and Wheatstone bridges based on spin-valves
   and magnetic tunnel junctions have been considered. In this sense,
   schematic-level simulations for integration in Austria Microsystems 0.35
   mu m technology have been corroborated by means of experimental
   measurements with the help of printed circuit board prototypes and real
   GMR devices. Tables with relevant parameters (silicon area, power
   consumption, sensitivity etc.) have been constructed as practical tools
   for designers. Electric currents down to 2 mu A have been resolved in
   this way.}},
DOI = {{10.1049/iet-cds.2013.0348}},
ISSN = {{1751-858X}},
EISSN = {{1751-8598}},
ResearcherID-Numbers = {{Reig, Candid/B-4253-2008
   De Marcellis, Andrea/F-4961-2011
   Freitas, Paulo J.P./B-6164-2013
   Cubells-Beltran, Maria-Dolores/L-8508-2014
   de Freitas, Susana Cardoso/B-6199-2013}},
ORCID-Numbers = {{Reig, Candid/0000-0001-8029-0068
   De Marcellis, Andrea/0000-0003-2490-7486
   Freitas, Paulo J.P./0000-0003-0015-1186
   Cubells-Beltran, Maria-Dolores/0000-0002-7864-9593
   de Freitas, Susana Cardoso/0000-0001-6913-6529}},
Unique-ID = {{ISI:000340128500007}},
}
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