Capillary Atmospheric Pressure Electron Capture Ionization (cAPECI): A Highly Efficient Ionization Method for Nitroaromatic Compounds. Derpmann, V.; Mueller, D.; Bejan, I.; Sonderfeld, H.; Wilberscheid, S.; Koppmann, R.; Brockmann, K., J.; and Benter, T. Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry, 25(3):329-42, 3, 2014.
Capillary Atmospheric Pressure Electron Capture Ionization (cAPECI): A Highly Efficient Ionization Method for Nitroaromatic Compounds. [pdf]Paper  Capillary Atmospheric Pressure Electron Capture Ionization (cAPECI): A Highly Efficient Ionization Method for Nitroaromatic Compounds. [link]Website  abstract   bibtex   
We report on a novel method for atmospheric pressure ionization of compounds with elevated electron affinity (e.g., nitroaromatic compounds) or gas phase acidity (e.g., phenols), respectively. The method is based on the generation of thermal electrons by the photo-electric effect, followed by electron capture of oxygen when air is the gas matrix yielding O2 (-) or of the analyte directly with nitrogen as matrix. Charge transfer or proton abstraction by O2 (-) leads to the ionization of the analytes. The interaction of UV-light with metals is a clean method for the generation of thermal electrons at atmospheric pressure. Furthermore, only negative ions are generated and neutral radical formation is minimized, in contrast to discharge- or dopant assisted methods. Ionization takes place inside the transfer capillary of the mass spectrometer leading to comparably short transfer times of ions to the high vacuum region of the mass spectrometer. This strongly reduces ion transformation processes, resulting in mass spectra that more closely relate to the neutral analyte distribution. cAPECI is thus a soft and selective ionization method with detection limits in the pptV range. In comparison to standard ionization methods (e.g., PTR), cAPECI is superior with respect to both selectivity and achievable detection limits. cAPECI demonstrates to be a promising ionization method for applications in relevant fields as, for example, explosives detection and atmospheric chemistry.
@article{
 title = {Capillary Atmospheric Pressure Electron Capture Ionization (cAPECI): A Highly Efficient Ionization Method for Nitroaromatic Compounds.},
 type = {article},
 year = {2014},
 identifiers = {[object Object]},
 keywords = {11 april 2013,17 september 2013,24 september 2013,8 january 2014,accepted,atmospheric chemistry,capeci,chemical ionization,electron attachment,electron capture,negative ion,nitroaromatics,photo-electric effect,published online,received,revised},
 pages = {329-42},
 volume = {25},
 websites = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24399666},
 month = {3},
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 abstract = {We report on a novel method for atmospheric pressure ionization of compounds with elevated electron affinity (e.g., nitroaromatic compounds) or gas phase acidity (e.g., phenols), respectively. The method is based on the generation of thermal electrons by the photo-electric effect, followed by electron capture of oxygen when air is the gas matrix yielding O2 (-) or of the analyte directly with nitrogen as matrix. Charge transfer or proton abstraction by O2 (-) leads to the ionization of the analytes. The interaction of UV-light with metals is a clean method for the generation of thermal electrons at atmospheric pressure. Furthermore, only negative ions are generated and neutral radical formation is minimized, in contrast to discharge- or dopant assisted methods. Ionization takes place inside the transfer capillary of the mass spectrometer leading to comparably short transfer times of ions to the high vacuum region of the mass spectrometer. This strongly reduces ion transformation processes, resulting in mass spectra that more closely relate to the neutral analyte distribution. cAPECI is thus a soft and selective ionization method with detection limits in the pptV range. In comparison to standard ionization methods (e.g., PTR), cAPECI is superior with respect to both selectivity and achievable detection limits. cAPECI demonstrates to be a promising ionization method for applications in relevant fields as, for example, explosives detection and atmospheric chemistry.},
 bibtype = {article},
 author = {Derpmann, Valerie and Mueller, David and Bejan, Iustinian and Sonderfeld, Hannah and Wilberscheid, Sonja and Koppmann, Ralf and Brockmann, Klaus J and Benter, Thorsten},
 journal = {Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry},
 number = {3}
}
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