Life Cycle Assessment of Completely Recyclable Concrete. De Schepper, M.; Van den Heede, P.; Van Driessche, I.; and De Belie, N. Materials, 7(8):6010–6027, August, 2014.
Life Cycle Assessment of Completely Recyclable Concrete [link]Paper  doi  abstract   bibtex   
Since the construction sector uses 50% of the Earth’s raw materials and produces 50% of its waste, the development of more durable and sustainable building materials is crucial. Today, Construction and Demolition Waste (CDW) is mainly used in low level applications, namely as unbound material for foundations, e.g., in road construction. Mineral demolition waste can be recycled as crushed aggregates for concrete, but these reduce the compressive strength and affect the workability due to higher values of water absorption. To advance the use of concrete rubble, Completely Recyclable Concrete (CRC) is designed for reincarnation within the cement production, following the Cradle-to-Cradle (C2C) principle. By the design, CRC becomes a resource for cement production because the chemical composition of CRC will be similar to that of cement raw materials. If CRC is used on a regular basis, a closed concrete-cement-concrete material cycle will arise, which is completely different from the current life cycle of traditional concrete. Within the research towards this CRC it is important to quantify the benefit for the environment and Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) needs to be performed, of which the results are presented in a this paper. It was observed that CRC could significantly reduce the global warming potential of concrete.
@article{de_schepper_life_2014,
	title = {Life {Cycle} {Assessment} of {Completely} {Recyclable} {Concrete}},
	volume = {7},
	copyright = {http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/},
	url = {http://www.mdpi.com/1996-1944/7/8/6010},
	doi = {10.3390/ma7086010},
	abstract = {Since the construction sector uses 50\% of the Earth’s raw materials and produces 50\% of its waste, the development of more durable and sustainable building materials is crucial. Today, Construction and Demolition Waste (CDW) is mainly used in low level applications, namely as unbound material for foundations, e.g., in road construction. Mineral demolition waste can be recycled as crushed aggregates for concrete, but these reduce the compressive strength and affect the workability due to higher values of water absorption. To advance the use of concrete rubble, Completely Recyclable Concrete (CRC) is designed for reincarnation within the cement production, following the  Cradle-to-Cradle (C2C) principle. By the design, CRC becomes a resource for cement production because the chemical composition of CRC will be similar to that of cement raw materials. If CRC is used on a regular basis, a closed concrete-cement-concrete material cycle will arise, which is completely different from the current life cycle of traditional concrete. Within the research towards this CRC it is important to quantify the benefit for the environment and Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) needs to be performed, of which the results are presented in a this paper. It was observed that CRC could significantly reduce the global warming potential of concrete.},
	language = {en},
	number = {8},
	urldate = {2018-03-29},
	journal = {Materials},
	author = {De Schepper, Mieke and Van den Heede, Philip and Van Driessche, Isabel and De Belie, Nele},
	month = aug,
	year = {2014},
	pages = {6010--6027}
}
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