Toilets dominate environmental detection of SARS-CoV-2 virus in a hospital. Ding, Z.; Xu, B.; Huang, Y.; Yen, H.; Xiao, S.; Cui, L.; Wu, X.; Shao, W.; Sha, L.; Zhou, L.; Zhu, B.; and Li, Y. MedRxiv.
Toilets dominate environmental detection of SARS-CoV-2 virus in a hospital [link]Website  abstract   bibtex   
Background: Respiratory and faecal aerosols play a suspected role in transmitting the SARS-CoV-2 virus. We performed extensive environmental sampling in a dedicated hospital building for Covid-19 patients in both toilet and non-toilet environments, and analysed the associated environmental factors. Methods: We collected data of the Covid-19 patients. 107 surface samples, 46 air samples, two exhaled condensate samples, and two expired air samples were collected were collected within and beyond the four three-bed isolation rooms. We reviewed the environmental design of the building and the cleaning routines. We conducted field measurement of airflow and CO2 concentrations. Findings: The 107 surface samples comprised 37 from toilets, 34 from other surfaces in isolation rooms (ventilated at 30-60 L/s), and 36 from other surfaces outside isolation rooms in the hospital. Four of these samples were positive, namely two ward door-handles, one bathroom toilet-seat cover and one bathroom door-handle; and three were weakly positive, namely one bathroom toilet seat, one bathroom washbasin tap lever and one bathroom ceiling-exhaust louvre. One of the 46 air samples was weakly positive, and this was a corridor air sample. The two exhaled condensate samples and the two expired air samples were negative. Interpretation: The faecal-derived aerosols in patients' toilets contained most of the detected SARS-CoV-2 virus in the hospital, highlighting the importance of surface and hand hygiene for intervention.
@article{
 title = {Toilets dominate environmental detection of SARS-CoV-2 virus in a hospital},
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 abstract = {Background: Respiratory and faecal aerosols play a suspected role in transmitting the SARS-CoV-2 virus. We performed extensive environmental sampling in a dedicated hospital building for Covid-19 patients in both toilet and non-toilet environments, and analysed the associated environmental factors. Methods: We collected data of the Covid-19 patients. 107 surface samples, 46 air samples, two exhaled condensate samples, and two expired air samples were collected were collected within and beyond the four three-bed isolation rooms. We reviewed the environmental design of the building and the cleaning routines. We conducted field measurement of airflow and CO2 concentrations. Findings: The 107 surface samples comprised 37 from toilets, 34 from other surfaces in isolation rooms (ventilated at 30-60 L/s), and 36 from other surfaces outside isolation rooms in the hospital. Four of these samples were positive, namely two ward door-handles, one bathroom toilet-seat cover and one bathroom door-handle; and three were weakly positive, namely one bathroom toilet seat, one bathroom washbasin tap lever and one bathroom ceiling-exhaust louvre. One of the 46 air samples was weakly positive, and this was a corridor air sample. The two exhaled condensate samples and the two expired air samples were negative. Interpretation: The faecal-derived aerosols in patients' toilets contained most of the detected SARS-CoV-2 virus in the hospital, highlighting the importance of surface and hand hygiene for intervention.},
 bibtype = {article},
 author = {Ding, Zhen and Xu, Bin and Huang, Ying and Yen, Hui-Ling and Xiao, Shenglan and Cui, Lunbiao and Wu, Xiaosong and Shao, Wei and Sha, Li and Zhou, Lian and Zhu, Baoli and Li, Yuguo},
 journal = {MedRxiv}
}
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