Density Functional Theory Study of the Oligomerization of Carboxylic Acids. Di Tommaso, D. and Watson, K., L. The journal of physical chemistry. A, 10, 2014.
Density Functional Theory Study of the Oligomerization of Carboxylic Acids. [pdf]Paper  Density Functional Theory Study of the Oligomerization of Carboxylic Acids. [link]Website  abstract   bibtex   
We present a density functional theory [M06-2X/6-31+G(d,p)] study of the structures and free energies of formation of oligomers of four carboxylic acids (formic acid, acetic acid, tetrolic acid and benzoic acid) in water, chloroform and carbon tetrachloride. Solvation effects were treated using the SMD continuum solvation model. The low-lying energy structures of molecular complexes were located by adopting an efficient search procedure to probe the potential energy surfaces of the oligomers of carboxylic acids (CA)n (n = 2-6) The free energies of the isomers of (CA)n in solution were determined as the sum of the electronic energy, vibrational-rotational-translational gas-phase contribution and solvation free energy. The assessment of the computational protocol adopted in this study with respect to the dimerization of acetic acid, (AA)2, and formic acid, (FA)2, locates new isomers of (AA)2 and (FA)2 and gave dimerization constants in good agreement with the experimental values. The calculation of the self-association of acetic acid, tetrolic acid and benzoic acid shows the following: (i) Classic carboxylic dimers are the most stable isomer of (CA)2 in both the gas phase and solution; (ii) Trimers of carboxylic acid are stable in apolar aprotic solvents; (iii) Molecular clusters consisting of two interacting classic carboxylic dimers (D+D)T are the most stable type of tetramers but their formation from the self-association of classic carboxylic dimers is highly unfavourable; (iv) For acetic acid and tetrolic acid the reactions (CA)2 + 2CA → (D+D)T and (CA)3 + CA → (D+D)T are exoergonic but these aggregation pathways go through unstable clusters that could hinder the formation of tetrameric species; (v) For tetrolic acid the pre-nucleation species that are more likely to form in solution are dimeric and trimeric structures that have encoded structural motifs resembling the α- and β-solid forms of tetrolic acid; (vi) Stable tetramers of benzoic acid could form in carbon tetrachloride from the aggregation of trimers and monomers; (vii) Higher order clusters such as acetic acid pentamers and tetrolic acid hexamers are highly unstable in all solvation environments.
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 title = {Density Functional Theory Study of the Oligomerization of Carboxylic Acids.},
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 abstract = {We present a density functional theory [M06-2X/6-31+G(d,p)] study of the structures and free energies of formation of oligomers of four carboxylic acids (formic acid, acetic acid, tetrolic acid and benzoic acid) in water, chloroform and carbon tetrachloride. Solvation effects were treated using the SMD continuum solvation model. The low-lying energy structures of molecular complexes were located by adopting an efficient search procedure to probe the potential energy surfaces of the oligomers of carboxylic acids (CA)n (n = 2-6) The free energies of the isomers of (CA)n in solution were determined as the sum of the electronic energy, vibrational-rotational-translational gas-phase contribution and solvation free energy. The assessment of the computational protocol adopted in this study with respect to the dimerization of acetic acid, (AA)2, and formic acid, (FA)2, locates new isomers of (AA)2 and (FA)2 and gave dimerization constants in good agreement with the experimental values. The calculation of the self-association of acetic acid, tetrolic acid and benzoic acid shows the following: (i) Classic carboxylic dimers are the most stable isomer of (CA)2 in both the gas phase and solution; (ii) Trimers of carboxylic acid are stable in apolar aprotic solvents; (iii) Molecular clusters consisting of two interacting classic carboxylic dimers (D+D)T are the most stable type of tetramers but their formation from the self-association of classic carboxylic dimers is highly unfavourable; (iv) For acetic acid and tetrolic acid the reactions (CA)2 + 2CA → (D+D)T and (CA)3 + CA → (D+D)T are exoergonic but these aggregation pathways go through unstable clusters that could hinder the formation of tetrameric species; (v) For tetrolic acid the pre-nucleation species that are more likely to form in solution are dimeric and trimeric structures that have encoded structural motifs resembling the α- and β-solid forms of tetrolic acid; (vi) Stable tetramers of benzoic acid could form in carbon tetrachloride from the aggregation of trimers and monomers; (vii) Higher order clusters such as acetic acid pentamers and tetrolic acid hexamers are highly unstable in all solvation environments.},
 bibtype = {article},
 author = {Di Tommaso, Devis and Watson, Ken Leo},
 journal = {The journal of physical chemistry. A}
}
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