Growth Variations of Common Beech (Fagus Sylvatica L.) under Different Climatic and Environmental Conditions in Europe – a Dendroecological Study. Dittmar, C.; Zech, W.; and Elling, W. 173(1-3):63–78.
Growth Variations of Common Beech (Fagus Sylvatica L.) under Different Climatic and Environmental Conditions in Europe – a Dendroecological Study [link]Paper  doi  abstract   bibtex   
With increased growth potential on the one hand, but on the other hand a high percentage of trees exhibiting visible damages and the apparent regional decline in Common beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) stands in Europe, new questions arise about the sensitivity and resistance of this tree species to current environmental changes. In order to obtain more relevant information about this, 36 beech stands under different climatic and environmental conditions throughout Europe were selected and investigated by dendroecological methods. The variation of tree ring widths of Common beech was found to be a very sensitive indicator, reflecting clearly the signals of environmental influences. A high statistical quality of tree ring chronologies demonstrates a high suitability for dendroecological analysis. The investigation of long-term growth variations results in site-dependent and especially elevation-dependent growth trends. Since 1950, at lower altitude sites in Central Europe mainly increased growth trends are obvious. At higher altitude sites, however, almost all sites show a slightly decreased growth potential during the last decades. It seems that at higher altitudes in Central Europe, environmental changes in the recent past with negative effects on cambial activity are the predominant growth influences. This is also reflected in short-term growth disturbances and growth depressions after 1975 in tree ring series of beech trees growing on higher altitude sites. The investigation of climate-growth relations by different dendroecological methods results in distinct altitude-dependent growth-limiting factors. The comparison of chronologies demonstrates a high resistance of beech at sites where water supply is the main growth controlling factor. Strong disturbances and depressions in radial increment, however, were found at higher altitude sites in Central Europe especially at the end of the 1970s. Comparisons with reactions in preceding years demonstrate an increased sensitivity or an affected 'ecological fitness'. Site factors modify the intensity of damage symptoms, but cannot be regarded as primary causes. Recent environmental changes may be responsible for the reduced 'ecological fitness' of Common beech in higher altitude sites. The spatial and temporal distribution of the detected growth disturbances leads to the assumption that increased tropospheric ozone concentrations are involved in the process of a changed sensitivity and resistance.
@article{dittmarGrowthVariationsCommon2003,
  title = {Growth Variations of {{Common}} Beech ({{Fagus}} Sylvatica {{L}}.) under Different Climatic and Environmental Conditions in {{Europe}} -- a Dendroecological Study},
  author = {Dittmar, Christoph and Zech, Wolfgang and Elling, Wolfram},
  date = {2003-02},
  journaltitle = {Forest Ecology and Management},
  volume = {173},
  pages = {63--78},
  issn = {0378-1127},
  doi = {10.1016/s0378-1127(01)00816-7},
  url = {https://doi.org/10.1016/s0378-1127(01)00816-7},
  abstract = {With increased growth potential on the one hand, but on the other hand a high percentage of trees exhibiting visible damages and the apparent regional decline in Common beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) stands in Europe, new questions arise about the sensitivity and resistance of this tree species to current environmental changes. In order to obtain more relevant information about this, 36 beech stands under different climatic and environmental conditions throughout Europe were selected and investigated by dendroecological methods. The variation of tree ring widths of Common beech was found to be a very sensitive indicator, reflecting clearly the signals of environmental influences. A high statistical quality of tree ring chronologies demonstrates a high suitability for dendroecological analysis. The investigation of long-term growth variations results in site-dependent and especially elevation-dependent growth trends. Since 1950, at lower altitude sites in Central Europe mainly increased growth trends are obvious. At higher altitude sites, however, almost all sites show a slightly decreased growth potential during the last decades. It seems that at higher altitudes in Central Europe, environmental changes in the recent past with negative effects on cambial activity are the predominant growth influences. This is also reflected in short-term growth disturbances and growth depressions after 1975 in tree ring series of beech trees growing on higher altitude sites. The investigation of climate-growth relations by different dendroecological methods results in distinct altitude-dependent growth-limiting factors. The comparison of chronologies demonstrates a high resistance of beech at sites where water supply is the main growth controlling factor. Strong disturbances and depressions in radial increment, however, were found at higher altitude sites in Central Europe especially at the end of the 1970s. Comparisons with reactions in preceding years demonstrate an increased sensitivity or an affected 'ecological fitness'. Site factors modify the intensity of damage symptoms, but cannot be regarded as primary causes. Recent environmental changes may be responsible for the reduced 'ecological fitness' of Common beech in higher altitude sites. The spatial and temporal distribution of the detected growth disturbances leads to the assumption that increased tropospheric ozone concentrations are involved in the process of a changed sensitivity and resistance.},
  keywords = {*imported-from-citeulike-INRMM,~INRMM-MiD:c-11379548,climate,europe,fagus-sylvatica,forest-resources,habitat-suitability},
  number = {1-3}
}
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