Potential Use of Populus for Phytoremediation of Environmental Pollution in Riparian Zones. Dix, M. E.; Klopfenstein, N. B.; Zhang, J. W.; Workman, S. W.; and Kim, M. S. In Klopfenstein, N. B.; Chun, Y. W.; Kim, M. S.; Ahuja, M. A.; Dillon, M. C.; Carman, R. C.; and Eskew, L. G., editors, Micropropagation, Genetic Engineering, and Molecular Biology of Populus, volume RM-GTR-297, of Rocky Mountain Forest & Range Exp. Station: General Technical Reports (RM-GTR), pages 206–211. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service.
Potential Use of Populus for Phytoremediation of Environmental Pollution in Riparian Zones [link]Paper  abstract   bibtex   
[Excerpt: Introduction] Environmental pollution is a serious threat to human life and to our ecosystems. Riparian zones, the narrow band of land between terrestrial and aquatic systems, are especially vulnerable to environmental pollution because many pollutants are transported through these systems via surface or subsurface runoff. Pollutants include fertilizers (e.g., nitrates), pesticides, agrichemical by-products, heavy metals, trichloroethylene, halogenated phenolics, and other waste products (Schoeneberger 1994). Because agricultural and industrial pollutants are widespread, there is increasing interest on organisms that accumulate, detoxify, or degrade these substances. While it is known that plants and microorganisms modify their environments, their potential use as mitigative tools to clean pollutants has only recently gained acceptance (Brown 1995). Woody perennial plants are ideal for remedial purposes because they can be planted over large areas at low cost and can concentrate or degrade environmental pollutants over several years (Moffat 1995), while also providing other economic or ecological services. As metabolic pathways for pollutant detoxification, uptake, and/ or degradation are described, woody plants can be selected or engineered to remediate specific environmental pollutants. [Why Populus?] Populus is well suited for use inphytoremediation (the use of specially selected and engineered plants for environmental remediation) plantings. Populus is easy to establish and grows quickly. Its high transpiration rate and wide-spreading root system make it ideal to intercept, absorb, degrade, and/ or detoxify contaminants, while reducing soil erosion. Historically, this widely distributed genus has naturally grown in riparian areas, thus many genotypes are adapted for growth on potential remediation sites. Populus plantings are amenable to coppicing and short-rotation harvest, thereby helping to maintain sustained root vigor. Further, if a biofuels or fiber market is available, harvests can generate additional income that helps offset establishment costs (Strauss and Grado this volume). Although Populus is not part of the human food chain, many vertebrates and invertebrates use the trees for food, shelter, and reproductive sites. Such increases in biodiversity can contribute to sustained productivity of adjacent aquatic habitat and crop land (Dix et al. in press). Populus is well studied, with established silvicultural, vegetative propagation, breeding, and harvesting protocols (Stettler et al. 1996). In addition, Populus is amenable to tissue culture manipulation, genetic engineering, and genetic mapping (various chapters this volume). Thus, Populus is an ideal candidate for genetic engineering and selection for absorption, detoxification, and/ or degradation of environmental pollutants such as heavy metals, nitrates, pesticide residues, and other waste products. [\n][...] [Conclusion] Planting poplar near riparian zones and toxic waste sites has generated considerable interest as an economical method to remediate toxic sites while providing income and environmental benefits. Planting Populus in riparian zones may provide unique opportunities for remediation of multiple toxins. Populus has high potential for environmental remediation because its biology is well studied, and its management, production, genetic engineering, genetic selection, and in vitro manipulation techniques are well developed and readily available. Demonstration plantings have been established in several communities to limit movement of potential ground-water contaminants. Such plantings are used to remediate leachate from contamiñ ted landfill and waste water systems while producing bwmass and providing wildlife habitat. However, phytoremediation of pollution in urban and rural landscapes is a long process and is primarily effective only on pollutants near the surface. It is a relatively environmentally safe process that can be used for large areas. Removal of pollutants by this method does not necessarily require much energy (Stomp et al. 1995). Additional research, development and field trials are needed before the specific biochemical processes involved in pollutant uptake, transport, and accumulation are fully understood. Environmental impacts of using Populus remediation plantings must also be thoroughly evaluated before such plantings can be fully utilized.
@incollection{dixPotentialUsePopulus1997,
  title = {Potential Use of {{Populus}} for Phytoremediation of Environmental Pollution in Riparian Zones},
  booktitle = {Micropropagation, Genetic Engineering, and Molecular Biology of {{Populus}}},
  author = {Dix, M. E. and Klopfenstein, N. B. and Zhang, J. W. and Workman, S. W. and Kim, M. S.},
  editor = {Klopfenstein, N. B. and Chun, Y. W. and Kim, M. S. and Ahuja, M. A. and Dillon, M. C. and Carman, R. C. and Eskew, L. G.},
  date = {1997},
  volume = {RM-GTR-297},
  pages = {206--211},
  publisher = {{U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service}},
  url = {http://mfkp.org/INRMM/article/13779520},
  abstract = {[Excerpt: Introduction] Environmental pollution is a serious threat to human life and to our ecosystems. Riparian zones, the narrow band of land between terrestrial and aquatic systems, are especially vulnerable to environmental pollution because many pollutants are transported through these systems via surface or subsurface runoff. Pollutants include fertilizers (e.g., nitrates), pesticides, agrichemical by-products, heavy metals, trichloroethylene, halogenated phenolics, and other waste products (Schoeneberger 1994). Because agricultural and industrial pollutants are widespread, there is increasing interest on organisms that accumulate, detoxify, or degrade these substances. While it is known that plants and microorganisms modify their environments, their potential use as mitigative tools to clean pollutants has only recently gained acceptance (Brown 1995). Woody perennial plants are ideal for remedial purposes because they can be planted over large areas at low cost and can concentrate or degrade environmental pollutants over several years (Moffat 1995), while also providing other economic or ecological services. As metabolic pathways for pollutant detoxification, uptake, and/ or degradation are described, woody plants can be selected or engineered to remediate specific environmental pollutants.

[Why Populus?] Populus is well suited for use inphytoremediation (the use of specially selected and engineered plants for environmental remediation) plantings. Populus is easy to establish and grows quickly. Its high transpiration rate and wide-spreading root system make it ideal to intercept, absorb, degrade, and/ or detoxify contaminants, while reducing soil erosion. Historically, this widely distributed genus has naturally grown in riparian areas, thus many genotypes are adapted for growth on potential remediation sites. Populus plantings are amenable to coppicing and short-rotation harvest, thereby helping to maintain sustained root vigor. Further, if a biofuels or fiber market is available, harvests can generate additional income that helps offset establishment costs (Strauss and Grado this volume). Although Populus is not part of the human food chain, many vertebrates and invertebrates use the trees for food, shelter, and reproductive sites. Such increases in biodiversity can contribute to sustained productivity of adjacent aquatic habitat and crop land (Dix et al. in press). Populus is well studied, with established silvicultural, vegetative propagation, breeding, and harvesting protocols (Stettler et al. 1996). In addition, Populus is amenable to tissue culture manipulation, genetic engineering, and genetic mapping (various chapters this volume). Thus, Populus is an ideal candidate for genetic engineering and selection for absorption, detoxification, and/ or degradation of environmental pollutants such as heavy metals, nitrates, pesticide residues, and other waste products.

[\textbackslash n][...]

[Conclusion] Planting poplar near riparian zones and toxic waste sites has generated considerable interest as an economical method to remediate toxic sites while providing income and environmental benefits. Planting Populus in riparian zones may provide unique opportunities for remediation of multiple toxins. Populus has high potential for environmental remediation because its biology is well studied, and its management, production, genetic engineering, genetic selection, and in vitro manipulation techniques are well developed and readily available. Demonstration plantings have been established in several communities to limit movement of potential ground-water contaminants. Such plantings are used to remediate leachate from contamiñ ted landfill and waste water systems while producing bwmass and providing wildlife habitat. However, phytoremediation of pollution in urban and rural landscapes is a long process and is primarily effective only on pollutants near the surface. It is a relatively environmentally safe process that can be used for large areas. Removal of pollutants by this method does not necessarily require much energy (Stomp et al. 1995). Additional research, development and field trials are needed before the specific biochemical processes involved in pollutant uptake, transport, and accumulation are fully understood. Environmental impacts of using Populus remediation plantings must also be thoroughly evaluated before such plantings can be fully utilized.},
  keywords = {*imported-from-citeulike-INRMM,~INRMM-MiD:c-13779520,ecosystem-services,forest-resources,hybridisation,nitrogen,pollution,populus-alba,populus-nigra,populus-spp,populus-tremula,populus-tremuloides,protection,soil-erosion,soil-resources,stabilization},
  series = {Rocky {{Mountain Forest}} \& {{Range Exp}}. {{Station}}: {{General Technical Reports}} ({{RM}}-{{GTR}})}
}
Downloads: 0