Chapter 24: Oceans and Marine Resources. Doney, S.; Rosenberg, A., A.; Alexander, M.; Chavez, F.; Harvell, C., D.; Hoffman, G.; Orbach, M.; and Ruckelshaus, M. Melillo, J.; Richmond, T.; and Yohe, G., editors. Climate Change Impacts in the United States: The Third National Climate Assessment, pages 557-578. U.S. Global Change Research Program, 2014.
abstract   bibtex   
1. The rise in ocean temperature over the last century will persist into the future, with continued large impacts on climate, ocean circulation, chemistry, and ecosystems. 2. The ocean currently absorbs about a quarter of human-caused carbon dioxide emissions to the atmosphere, leading to ocean acidification that will alter marine ecosystems in dramatic yet uncertain ways. 3. Significant habitat loss will continue to occur due to climate change, in particular for Arctic and coral reef ecosystems, while expansions of habitat in other areas and for other species will occur. These changes will consequently alter the distribution, abundance, and productivity of many marine species. 4. Rising sea surface temperatures have been linked with increasing levels and ranges of diseases of humans and marine life, such as corals, abalones, oysters, fishes, and marine mammals. 5. Altered environmental conditions due to climate change will affect, in both positive and negative ways, human uses of the ocean, including transportation, resource use and extraction, leisure and tourism activities and industries, in nearshore and offshore areas. Many marine activities are designed based on historical conditions. Thus, climate changes that result in conditions substantially different from recent history may significantly increase costs to businesses as well as disrupt public access and enjoyment of ocean areas. 6. In response to observed and projected climate impacts, some existing ocean policies, practices, and management efforts are incorporating climate-change impacts. These initiatives, such as increasing the resilience of built infrastructure or natural marine ecosystems, can serve as a model for other efforts and ultimately enable people and communities to adapt to changing ocean conditions. DRAFT
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 abstract = {1. The rise in ocean temperature over the last century will persist into the future, with continued large impacts on climate, ocean circulation, chemistry, and ecosystems. 2. The ocean currently absorbs about a quarter of human-caused carbon dioxide emissions to the atmosphere, leading to ocean acidification that will alter marine ecosystems in dramatic yet uncertain ways. 3. Significant habitat loss will continue to occur due to climate change, in particular for Arctic and coral reef ecosystems, while expansions of habitat in other areas and for other species will occur. These changes will consequently alter the distribution, abundance, and productivity of many marine species. 4. Rising sea surface temperatures have been linked with increasing levels and ranges of diseases of humans and marine life, such as corals, abalones, oysters, fishes, and marine mammals. 5. Altered environmental conditions due to climate change will affect, in both positive and negative ways, human uses of the ocean, including transportation, resource use and extraction, leisure and tourism activities and industries, in nearshore and offshore areas. Many marine activities are designed based on historical conditions. Thus, climate changes that result in conditions substantially different from recent history may significantly increase costs to businesses as well as disrupt public access and enjoyment of ocean areas. 6. In response to observed and projected climate impacts, some existing ocean policies, practices, and management efforts are incorporating climate-change impacts. These initiatives, such as increasing the resilience of built infrastructure or natural marine ecosystems, can serve as a model for other efforts and ultimately enable people and communities to adapt to changing ocean conditions. DRAFT},
 bibtype = {inbook},
 author = {Doney, Scott and Rosenberg, Andrew A and Alexander, Michael and Chavez, Francisco and Harvell, Catherine Drew and Hoffman, Gretchen and Orbach, Michael and Ruckelshaus, Mary},
 editor = {Melillo, J.M. and Richmond, T.C. and Yohe, G.W.},
 title = {Climate Change Impacts in the United States: The Third National Climate Assessment}
}
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