An Algebra for Symbolic Diffie-Hellman Protocol Analysis. Dougherty, D. J. & Guttman, J. D. 2012.
An Algebra for Symbolic Diffie-Hellman Protocol Analysis [pdf]Paper  abstract   bibtex   
We study the algebra underlying symbolic protocol analysis for protocols using Diffie-Hellman operations. Diffie-Hellman operations act on a cyclic group of prime order, together with an exponentiation operator. The exponents form a finite field: this rich algebraic structure has resisted previous symbolic approaches. We define an algebra that validates precisely the equations that hold almost always as the order of the cyclic group varies. We realize this algebra as the set of normal forms of a particular rewriting theory. The normal forms allow us to define our crucial notion of indicator, a vector of integers that summarizes how many times each secret exponent appears in a message. We prove that the adversary can never construct a message with a new indicator in our adversary model. Using this invariant, we prove the main security goals achieved by UM, a protocol using Diffie-Hellman for implicit authentication.

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