Collisional focusing effects in radio frequency quadrupoles. Douglas, D., J. & French, J., B. Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry, 3(4):398-408, 5, 1992.
Collisional focusing effects in radio frequency quadrupoles. [pdf]Paper  Collisional focusing effects in radio frequency quadrupoles. [link]Website  abstract   bibtex   
The transmission of ions through a conventional two-dimensional radiofrequency-only (rf) quadrupole has been studied for comparatively high operating pressures between 5 × 10(-4) and 1 × 10(-2) torr. Measurements of signals from mass-resolved analyte ions and total ion currents show that, provided the initial injection ion energy is low (1-30 eV), the ion transmission observed through a small aperture at the exit of the rf quadrupole first increases as the gas pressure increases, reaching a maximum at - 8 × 10(-3) torr before decreasing at higher pressures. This is in direct contrast to the expectations of classical scattering. This "collisional focusing" appears to be analogous to effects seen in three-dimensional ion traps. The collisional focusing increases with the mass of the ion (not mass-to-charge ratio) for masses up to at least 16,950 u. The collisional focusing of the ions is found to be accompanied by significant losses of axial kinetic energy. A Monte Carlo simulation of the energy loss process is reported that can provide agreement with the observed losses for reasonable collision cross-sections. The results suggest that operation of rf quadrupoles at relatively high pressure may find practical application in sampling ions from high (e.g., atmospheric) pressure ion sources.

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