Employment-based abstinence reinforcement following inpatient detoxification in HIV-positive opioid and/or cocaine-dependent patients. Dunn, K., E.; Fingerhood, M.; Wong, C., J.; Svikis, D., S.; Nuzzo, P.; and Silverman, K. Experimental and clinical psychopharmacology, 22(1):75-85, 2, 2014.
Employment-based abstinence reinforcement following inpatient detoxification in HIV-positive opioid and/or cocaine-dependent patients. [pdf]Paper  Employment-based abstinence reinforcement following inpatient detoxification in HIV-positive opioid and/or cocaine-dependent patients. [link]Website  abstract   bibtex   
Employment-based reinforcement interventions have been used to promote abstinence from drugs among chronically unemployed injection drug users. The current study used an employment-based reinforcement intervention to promote opioid and cocaine abstinence among opioid and/or cocaine-dependent, HIV-positive participants who had recently completed a brief inpatient detoxification. Participants (n = 46) were randomly assigned to an abstinence and work group that was required to provide negative urine samples in order to enter the workplace and to earn incentives for work (n = 16), a work-only group that was permitted to enter the workplace and to earn incentives independent of drug use (n = 15), and a no-voucher control group that did not receive any incentives for working (n = 15) over a 26-week period. The primary outcome was urinalysis-confirmed opioid, cocaine, and combined opioid/cocaine abstinence. Participants were 78% male and 89% African American. Results showed no significant between-groups differences in urinalysis-verified drug abstinence or HIV risk behaviors during the 6-month intervention. The work-only group had significantly greater workplace attendance, and worked more minutes per day when compared to the no-voucher group. Several features of the study design, including the lack of an induction period, setting the threshold for entering the workplace too high by requiring immediate abstinence from several drugs, and increasing the risk of relapse by providing a brief detoxification that was not supported by any continued pharmacological intervention, likely prevented the workplace from becoming established as a reinforcer that could be used to promote drug abstinence. However, increases in workplace attendance have important implications for adult training programs.
@article{
 title = {Employment-based abstinence reinforcement following inpatient detoxification in HIV-positive opioid and/or cocaine-dependent patients.},
 type = {article},
 year = {2014},
 identifiers = {[object Object]},
 keywords = {HIV,contingency management,incentive,injection drug use,therapeutic workplace},
 pages = {75-85},
 volume = {22},
 websites = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24490712,http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=PMC4332775},
 month = {2},
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 last_modified = {2017-03-28T18:47:04.891Z},
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 abstract = {Employment-based reinforcement interventions have been used to promote abstinence from drugs among chronically unemployed injection drug users. The current study used an employment-based reinforcement intervention to promote opioid and cocaine abstinence among opioid and/or cocaine-dependent, HIV-positive participants who had recently completed a brief inpatient detoxification. Participants (n = 46) were randomly assigned to an abstinence and work group that was required to provide negative urine samples in order to enter the workplace and to earn incentives for work (n = 16), a work-only group that was permitted to enter the workplace and to earn incentives independent of drug use (n = 15), and a no-voucher control group that did not receive any incentives for working (n = 15) over a 26-week period. The primary outcome was urinalysis-confirmed opioid, cocaine, and combined opioid/cocaine abstinence. Participants were 78% male and 89% African American. Results showed no significant between-groups differences in urinalysis-verified drug abstinence or HIV risk behaviors during the 6-month intervention. The work-only group had significantly greater workplace attendance, and worked more minutes per day when compared to the no-voucher group. Several features of the study design, including the lack of an induction period, setting the threshold for entering the workplace too high by requiring immediate abstinence from several drugs, and increasing the risk of relapse by providing a brief detoxification that was not supported by any continued pharmacological intervention, likely prevented the workplace from becoming established as a reinforcer that could be used to promote drug abstinence. However, increases in workplace attendance have important implications for adult training programs.},
 bibtype = {article},
 author = {Dunn, Kelly E and Fingerhood, Michael and Wong, Conrad J and Svikis, Dace S and Nuzzo, Paul and Silverman, Kenneth},
 journal = {Experimental and clinical psychopharmacology},
 number = {1}
}
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