A perspective on sustained marine observations for climate modelling and prediction. Dunstone, N. J. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, 372(2025):20130340+, The Royal Society, September, 2014.
A perspective on sustained marine observations for climate modelling and prediction [link]Paper  doi  abstract   bibtex   
Here, I examine some of the many varied ways in which sustained global ocean observations are used in numerical modelling activities. In particular, I focus on the use of ocean observations to initialize predictions in ocean and climate models. Examples are also shown of how models can be used to assess the impact of both current ocean observations and to simulate that of potential new ocean observing platforms. The ocean has never been better observed than it is today and similarly ocean models have never been as capable at representing the real ocean as they are now. However, there remain important unanswered questions that can likely only be addressed via future improvements in ocean observations. In particular, ocean observing systems need to respond to the needs of the burgeoning field of near-term climate predictions. Although new ocean observing platforms promise exciting new discoveries, there is a delicate balance to be made between their funding and that of the current ocean observing system. Here, I identify the need to secure long-term funding for ocean observing platforms as they mature, from a mainly research exercise to an operational system for sustained observation over climate change time scales. At the same time, considerable progress continues to be made via ship-based observing campaigns and I highlight some that are dedicated to addressing uncertainties in key ocean model parametrizations. The use of ocean observations to understand the prominent long time scale changes observed in the North Atlantic is another focus of this paper. The exciting first decade of monitoring of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation by the RAPID-MOCHA array is highlighted. The use of ocean and climate models as tools to further probe the drivers of variability seen in such time series is another exciting development. I also discuss the need for a concerted combined effort from climate models and ocean observations in order to understand the current slow-down in surface global warming.
@article{Dunstone2014Perspective,
  abstract = {Here, I examine some of the many varied ways in which sustained global ocean observations are used in numerical modelling activities. In particular, I focus on the use of ocean observations to initialize predictions in ocean and climate models. Examples are also shown of how models can be used to assess the impact of both current ocean observations and to simulate that of potential new ocean observing platforms. The ocean has never been better observed than it is today and similarly ocean models have never been as capable at representing the real ocean as they are now. However, there remain important unanswered questions that can likely only be addressed via future improvements in ocean observations. In particular, ocean observing systems need to respond to the needs of the burgeoning field of near-term climate predictions. Although new ocean observing platforms promise exciting new discoveries, there is a delicate balance to be made between their funding and that of the current ocean observing system. Here, I identify the need to secure long-term funding for ocean observing platforms as they mature, from a mainly research exercise to an operational system for sustained observation over climate change time scales. At the same time, considerable progress continues to be made via ship-based observing campaigns and I highlight some that are dedicated to addressing uncertainties in key ocean model parametrizations. The use of ocean observations to understand the prominent long time scale changes observed in the North Atlantic is another focus of this paper. The exciting first decade of monitoring of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation by the RAPID-MOCHA array is highlighted. The use of ocean and climate models as tools to further probe the drivers of variability seen in such time series is another exciting development. I also discuss the need for a concerted combined effort from climate models and ocean observations in order to understand the current slow-down in surface global warming.},
  added-at = {2018-06-18T21:23:34.000+0200},
  author = {Dunstone, Nick J.},
  biburl = {https://www.bibsonomy.org/bibtex/24d2b13d04fb0913894582b995d7360cd/pbett},
  citeulike-article-id = {13340279},
  citeulike-linkout-0 = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsta.2013.0340},
  citeulike-linkout-1 = {http://rsta.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/372/2025/20130340.abstract},
  citeulike-linkout-2 = {http://rsta.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/372/2025/20130340.full.pdf},
  citeulike-linkout-3 = {http://rsta.royalsocietypublishing.org/cgi/content/abstract/372/2025/20130340},
  citeulike-linkout-4 = {http://view.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25157195},
  citeulike-linkout-5 = {http://www.hubmed.org/display.cgi?uids=25157195},
  day = 28,
  doi = {10.1098/rsta.2013.0340},
  interhash = {903911ebf01e4208b5fcfd938df04719},
  intrahash = {4d2b13d04fb0913894582b995d7360cd},
  issn = {1471-2962},
  journal = {Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences},
  keywords = {colleagues seasonal decadal ocean review climate obs},
  month = sep,
  number = 2025,
  pages = {20130340+},
  pmid = {25157195},
  posted-at = {2015-11-17 13:26:46},
  priority = {2},
  publisher = {The Royal Society},
  timestamp = {2018-06-22T18:36:02.000+0200},
  title = {A perspective on sustained marine observations for climate modelling and prediction},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsta.2013.0340},
  volume = 372,
  year = 2014
}
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