Elastic, dynamic viscoelastic and model-derived fibril-reinforced poroelastic mechanical properties of normal and osteoarthritic human femoral condyle cartilage. Ebrahimi, M., Finnilä, M. A. J., Turkiewicz, A., Englund, M., Saarakkala, S., Korhonen, R. K., & Tanska, P. Annals of Biomedical Engineering, August, 2021.
Elastic, dynamic viscoelastic and model-derived fibril-reinforced poroelastic mechanical properties of normal and osteoarthritic human femoral condyle cartilage [link]Paper  doi  abstract   bibtex   
Osteoarthritis (OA) degrades articular cartilage and weakens its function. Modern fibril-reinforced poroelastic (FRPE) computational models can distinguish the mechanical properties of main cartilage constituents, namely collagen, proteoglycans, and fluid, thus, they can precisely characterize the complex mechanical behavior of the tissue. However, these properties are not known for human femoral condyle cartilage. Therefore, we aimed to characterize them from human subjects undergoing knee replacement and from deceased donors without known OA. Multi-step stress-relaxation measurements coupled with sample-specific finite element analyses were conducted to obtain the FRPE material properties. Samples were graded using OARSI scoring to determine the severity of histopathological cartilage degradation. The results suggest that alterations in the FRPE properties are not evident in the moderate stages of cartilage degradation (OARSI 2-3) as compared with normal tissue (OARSI 0-1). Drastic deterioration of the FRPE properties was observed in severely degraded cartilage (OARSI 4). We also found that the FRPE properties of femoral condyle cartilage related to the collagen network (initial fibril-network modulus) and proteoglycan matrix (non-fibrillar matrix modulus) were greater compared to tibial and patellar cartilage in OA. These findings may inform cartilage tissue-engineering efforts and help to improve the accuracy of cartilage representations in computational knee joint models.
@article{ebrahimi_elastic_2021,
	title = {Elastic, dynamic viscoelastic and model-derived fibril-reinforced poroelastic mechanical properties of normal and osteoarthritic human femoral condyle cartilage},
	issn = {1573-9686},
	url = {https://doi.org/10.1007/s10439-021-02838-4},
	doi = {10.1007/s10439-021-02838-4},
	abstract = {Osteoarthritis (OA) degrades articular cartilage and weakens its function. Modern fibril-reinforced poroelastic (FRPE) computational models can distinguish the mechanical properties of main cartilage constituents, namely collagen, proteoglycans, and fluid, thus, they can precisely characterize the complex mechanical behavior of the tissue. However, these properties are not known for human femoral condyle cartilage. Therefore, we aimed to characterize them from human subjects undergoing knee replacement and from deceased donors without known OA. Multi-step stress-relaxation measurements coupled with sample-specific finite element analyses were conducted to obtain the FRPE material properties. Samples were graded using OARSI scoring to determine the severity of histopathological cartilage degradation. The results suggest that alterations in the FRPE properties are not evident in the moderate stages of cartilage degradation (OARSI 2-3) as compared with normal tissue (OARSI 0-1). Drastic deterioration of the FRPE properties was observed in severely degraded cartilage (OARSI 4). We also found that the FRPE properties of femoral condyle cartilage related to the collagen network (initial fibril-network modulus) and proteoglycan matrix (non-fibrillar matrix modulus) were greater compared to tibial and patellar cartilage in OA. These findings may inform cartilage tissue-engineering efforts and help to improve the accuracy of cartilage representations in computational knee joint models.},
	language = {en},
	urldate = {2021-09-06},
	journal = {Annals of Biomedical Engineering},
	author = {Ebrahimi, Mohammadhossein and Finnilä, Mikko A. J. and Turkiewicz, Aleksandra and Englund, Martin and Saarakkala, Simo and Korhonen, Rami K. and Tanska, Petri},
	month = aug,
	year = {2021},
}

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