Fishing or a Z?: Investigating the Effects of Error on Mimetic and Alphabet Device-based Gesture Interaction. El Ali, A., Kildal, J., & Lantz, V. In Proceedings of the 14th ACM International Conference on Multimodal Interaction, of ICMI '12, pages 93--100, New York, NY, USA, 2012. ACM.
Fishing or a Z?: Investigating the Effects of Error on Mimetic and Alphabet Device-based Gesture Interaction [link]Paper  doi  abstract   bibtex   
While gesture taxonomies provide a classification of device-based gestures in terms of communicative intent, little work has addressed the usability differences in manually performing these gestures. In this primarily qualitative study, we investigate how two sets of iconic gestures that vary in familiarity, mimetic and alphabetic, are affected under varying failed recognition error rates (0-20%, 20-40%, 40-60%). Drawing on experiment logs, video observations, subjects' feedback, and a subjective workload assessment questionnaire, results revealed two main findings: a) mimetic gestures tend to evolve into diverse variations (within the activities they mimic) under high error rates, while alphabet gestures tend to become more rigid and structured and b) mimetic gestures were tolerated under recognition error rates of up to 40%, while alphabet gestures incur significant overall workload with up to only 20% error rates. Thus, while alphabet gestures are more robust to recognition errors in keeping their signature, mimetic gestures are more robust to recognition errors from a usability and user experience standpoint, and thus better suited for inclusion into mainstream device-based gesture interaction with mobile phones.
@inproceedings{el_ali_fishing_2012,
	address = {New York, NY, USA},
	series = {{ICMI} '12},
	title = {Fishing or a {Z}?: {Investigating} the {Effects} of {Error} on {Mimetic} and {Alphabet} {Device}-based {Gesture} {Interaction}},
	isbn = {978-1-4503-1467-1},
	shorttitle = {Fishing or a {Z}?},
	url = {http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/2388676.2388701},
	doi = {10.1145/2388676.2388701},
	abstract = {While gesture taxonomies provide a classification of device-based gestures in terms of communicative intent, little work has addressed the usability differences in manually performing these gestures. In this primarily qualitative study, we investigate how two sets of iconic gestures that vary in familiarity, mimetic and alphabetic, are affected under varying failed recognition error rates (0-20\%, 20-40\%, 40-60\%). Drawing on experiment logs, video observations, subjects' feedback, and a subjective workload assessment questionnaire, results revealed two main findings: a) mimetic gestures tend to evolve into diverse variations (within the activities they mimic) under high error rates, while alphabet gestures tend to become more rigid and structured and b) mimetic gestures were tolerated under recognition error rates of up to 40\%, while alphabet gestures incur significant overall workload with up to only 20\% error rates. Thus, while alphabet gestures are more robust to recognition errors in keeping their signature, mimetic gestures are more robust to recognition errors from a usability and user experience standpoint, and thus better suited for inclusion into mainstream device-based gesture interaction with mobile phones.},
	urldate = {2014-06-05TZ},
	booktitle = {Proceedings of the 14th {ACM} {International} {Conference} on {Multimodal} {Interaction}},
	publisher = {ACM},
	author = {El Ali, Abdallah and Kildal, Johan and Lantz, Vuokko},
	year = {2012},
	pages = {93--100}
}
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