Dermal carotenoid measurements via pressure mediated reflection spectroscopy. Ermakov, I., V. & Gellermann, W. Journal of Biophotonics, 5(7):559-570, 2012.
abstract   bibtex   
We describe a reflection-based method for the quantitative detection of carotenoid antioxidants in living human skin. The skin tissue site of interest is illuminated with broad-band white light spanning the spectral range from 350-850 nm and the spectral composition of the diffusively reflected light is analyzed in real time. Topical pressure is applied to temporarily squeeze blood out of the illuminated tissue volume. In this way the influence of oxy-hemoglobin on the reflection spectra is effectively reduced. After a short optical clearing time the carotenoid absorption becomes easily discernable in a 460-500 nm spectral window and its optical density can be calculated with high accuracy. Our empirical methodology provides a non-invasive rapid determination of skin carotenoid levels, can be used to monitor skin carotenoid concentration changes over time in response to carotenoid containing natural or supplemental diets, and is easily adaptable for applications in clinical and field settings.
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 title = {Dermal carotenoid measurements via pressure mediated reflection spectroscopy},
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 year = {2012},
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 keywords = {Antioxidants,Carotenoids,Reflection spectroscopy,Skin},
 created = {2015-04-08T12:25:35.000Z},
 pages = {559-570},
 volume = {5},
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 abstract = {We describe a reflection-based method for the quantitative detection of carotenoid antioxidants in living human skin. The skin tissue site of interest is illuminated with broad-band white light spanning the spectral range from 350-850 nm and the spectral composition of the diffusively reflected light is analyzed in real time. Topical pressure is applied to temporarily squeeze blood out of the illuminated tissue volume. In this way the influence of oxy-hemoglobin on the reflection spectra is effectively reduced. After a short optical clearing time the carotenoid absorption becomes easily discernable in a 460-500 nm spectral window and its optical density can be calculated with high accuracy. Our empirical methodology provides a non-invasive rapid determination of skin carotenoid levels, can be used to monitor skin carotenoid concentration changes over time in response to carotenoid containing natural or supplemental diets, and is easily adaptable for applications in clinical and field settings.},
 bibtype = {article},
 author = {Ermakov, Igor V. and Gellermann, Werner},
 journal = {Journal of Biophotonics},
 number = {7}
}
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