Live attenuated intranasal influenza vaccine. Esposito, S., Montinaro, V., Groppali, E., Tenconi, R., Semino, M., & Principi, N. Human Vaccines \& Immunotherapeutics, 8(1):76--80, January, 2012.
doi  abstract   bibtex   
Annual vaccination is the most effective means of preventing and controlling influenza epidemics, and the traditional trivalent inactivated vaccine (TIV) is by far the most widely used. Unfortunately, it has a number of limitations, the most important of which is its poor immunogenicity in younger children and the elderly, the populations at greatest risk of severe influenza. Live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) has characteristics that can overcome some of these limitations. It does not have to be injected because it is administered intranasally. It is very effective in children and adolescents, among whom it prevents significantly more cases of influenza than the traditional TIV. However, its efficacy in adults has not been adequately documented, which is why it has not been licensed for use by adults by the European health authorities. LAIV is safe and well tolerated by children aged \textgreater 2 y and adults, but some concerns arisen regarding its safety in younger children and subjects with previous asthma or with recurrent wheezing. Further studies are needed to solve these problems and to evaluate the possible role of LAIV in the annual vaccination of the general population.
@article{ esposito_live_2012,
  title = {Live attenuated intranasal influenza vaccine},
  volume = {8},
  issn = {2164-554X},
  doi = {10.4161/hv.8.1.18809},
  abstract = {Annual vaccination is the most effective means of preventing and controlling influenza epidemics, and the traditional trivalent inactivated vaccine (TIV) is by far the most widely used. Unfortunately, it has a number of limitations, the most important of which is its poor immunogenicity in younger children and the elderly, the populations at greatest risk of severe influenza. Live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) has characteristics that can overcome some of these limitations. It does not have to be injected because it is administered intranasally. It is very effective in children and adolescents, among whom it prevents significantly more cases of influenza than the traditional TIV. However, its efficacy in adults has not been adequately documented, which is why it has not been licensed for use by adults by the European health authorities. LAIV is safe and well tolerated by children aged {\textgreater} 2 y and adults, but some concerns arisen regarding its safety in younger children and subjects with previous asthma or with recurrent wheezing. Further studies are needed to solve these problems and to evaluate the possible role of LAIV in the annual vaccination of the general population.},
  language = {eng},
  number = {1},
  journal = {Human Vaccines \& Immunotherapeutics},
  author = {Esposito, Susanna and Montinaro, Valentina and Groppali, Elena and Tenconi, Rossana and Semino, Margherita and Principi, Nicola},
  month = {January},
  year = {2012},
  pmid = {22251995},
  keywords = {Administration, Intranasal, Adolescent, Adult, Child, Child, Preschool, Clinical Trials as Topic, Female, Humans, Infant, Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype, Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype, Influenza B virus, Influenza Vaccines, Influenza, Human, Licensure, Male, Middle Aged, Treatment Outcome, Vaccination, Vaccines, Attenuated, Young Adult},
  pages = {76--80}
}
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