Reporting on European Forest Fragmentation: Standardized Indices and Web Map Services. Estreguil, C., Caudullo, G., de Rigo, D., Whitmore, C., & San-Miguel-Ayanz, J. IEEE Earthzine, 5(2):384031+, IEEE, 2012. 2nd quarter theme: Forest Resource Information
Reporting on European Forest Fragmentation: Standardized Indices and Web Map Services [link]Paper  abstract   bibtex   
This paper responds to the need for improved reporting and methodology reproducibility on forest fragmentation as underlined in the biodiversity policy context. The fragmentation of a focal ecosystem is conceptualized from a landscape pattern characterization based on three publicly available landscape models (Morphological Spatial Pattern application of the GUIDOS free download software, Landscape Mosaic Pattern, Conefor Sensinode free open source software) that were partly combined. A set of indices were derived and organized into five main families: two indices on general landscape composition, four on forest fragmentation pattern, four on forest morphological shapes with their respective edge interface mosaic context (four indices) and three indices on connectivity. A concise array-based mathematical formulation of the indices allows their unambiguous semantic description and easier implementation, thus contributing to share concise data-transformation models. The number of indices in each family can be reduced depending on user's focus and semantics. The indices were computed by using the European-wide 25m resolution forest map of year 2006 and the broad scale CORINE land cover multi-temporal data as inputs maps. A snap-shot of the European-wide data available on the status and trends of forest fragmentation over the 1990-2006 time period is shortly illustrated. Furthermore, a dedicated pattern web map viewer was developed using existing tools, free open source software and web standard technologies for data viewing and query from the European Forest Data Centre (EFDAC). The GIS layers are available as OGC WMS/WFS and could be re-used within a ModelWeb context in the near future, then being of direct benefit to GEOSS and its underlying data sharing principles.
@article{ citeulike:10871685,
  abstract = {This paper responds to the need for improved reporting and methodology
reproducibility on forest fragmentation as underlined in the biodiversity policy context. The fragmentation of a focal ecosystem is conceptualized from a landscape pattern characterization based on three publicly available landscape models (Morphological Spatial Pattern application of the {GUIDOS} free download software, Landscape Mosaic Pattern, Conefor Sensinode free open source software) that were partly combined. A set of indices were derived and organized into five main families: two indices on general landscape composition, four on forest fragmentation pattern, four on forest morphological shapes with their respective edge interface mosaic context (four indices) and three indices on connectivity.
A concise array-based mathematical formulation of the indices allows their unambiguous semantic description and easier implementation, thus contributing to share concise data-transformation models. The number of indices in each family can be reduced depending on user's focus and semantics. The indices were computed by using the European-wide 25m resolution forest map of year 2006 and the broad scale {CORINE} land cover multi-temporal data as inputs maps. A snap-shot of the European-wide data available on the status and trends of forest fragmentation over the 1990-2006 time period is shortly illustrated. Furthermore, a dedicated pattern web map viewer was developed using existing tools, free open source software and web standard technologies for data viewing and query from the European Forest Data Centre ({EFDAC}). The {GIS} layers are available as {OGC} {WMS}/{WFS} and could be re-used within a {ModelWeb} context in the near future, then being of direct benefit to {GEOSS} and its underlying data sharing principles.},
  author = {Estreguil, C. and Caudullo, G. and de Rigo, D. and Whitmore, C. and San-Miguel-Ayanz, J.},
  citeulike-article-id = {10871685},
  citeulike-linkout-0 = {http://www.earthzine.org/?p=384031},
  citeulike-linkout-1 = {http://scholar.google.it/scholar?cluster=11727593185992629141},
  citeulike-linkout-2 = {http://www.webcitation.org/6EbPIGYcO},
  citeulike-linkout-3 = {http://mastrave.org/bib/Estreguil_et_al_2012_Earthzine_summary.pdf},
  citeulike-linkout-4 = {http://www.earthzine.org/2012/07/05/reporting-on-european-forest-fragmentation-standardized-indices-and-web-map-services/},
  comment = {== Figures ==

* Figure:70%:  https://archive.is/JREYP/9078eb9d5c1932ec41f6b7927a2affa970663291.jpg
* Source:   http://www.earthzine.org/?p=384031
* Archived: https://archive.today/JREYP
* Caption:  Conceptual illustration of model-based maps to compute the index families for a focal class 'forest': (a) simplified input land cover map according to four classes of interest, (b) the morphological forest shape map (MORPH), (c) the mosaic forest fragmentation pattern map (MOSAIC), d) the forest interface map (Interface), e) the inter-patch connectivity based on (e) Euclidian distance and homogeneous matrix and (f) Least-cost path and matrix resistance.


* Figure:   https://archive.is/mzcgS/e3783e96a4b2f5c07d2f1799bfe7f99c28f24999.jpg
* Source:   http://www.earthzine.org/?p=384031
* Archived: https://archive.today/mzcgS
* Caption:  Example of forest landscape fragmentation index: core natural proportion. Year 2006, spatial grid INSPIRE Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area, resolution 25 km x 25 km. Image from the European Forest Data Centre (EFDAC) map viewer. Ground layer: Google (2012).


* Figure:90%:   https://archive.is/3e1j1/b0401bf0fddb1f7c5d72fe0a1f6296b055df3f60.jpg
* Source:   http://www.earthzine.org/?p=384031
* Archived: https://archive.today/3e1j1
* Caption:  In this paper, five families of indices are proposed. Whilst the first four families show a computational complexity which is linear with of shapes (forest, morphology or mosaic patches), the indices dealing with connectivity are inherently quadratic with the number of forest patches because the connection between each pair of shapes has to be considered. A simplified version of the Power Weighted Probability of Dispersal (PWPD) family of indices harmonizes their definition (s-PWPD). Implementing the whole s-PWPD is straightforward using array programming languages. For example, using either GNU Octave or MATLAB languages with the Mastrave modelling library, a generic index of the s-PWPD family would be computable by means of a generic reduction operator applied to a graph (whose edge- and node-weights are respectively the probabilities of dispersal P and the patch areas A) with a codelet composed by a single line of code.
},
  institution = {IEEE Committee on Earth Observation (ICEO)},
  journal = {IEEE Earthzine},
  keywords = {conefor-sensinode, connectivity, data-transformation-codelets, europe, forest-resource-information, forest-resources, fragmentation, indices, mastrave-modelling-library, semantic-array-programming, web-map-services},
  note = {2nd quarter theme: Forest Resource Information},
  number = {2},
  pages = {384031+},
  posted-at = {2012-07-10 13:20:31},
  priority = {5},
  publisher = {IEEE},
  title = {Reporting on European Forest Fragmentation: Standardized Indices and Web Map Services},
  url = {http://www.earthzine.org/?p=384031},
  volume = {5},
  year = {2012}
}
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