Pinus Nigra - Version 2014.3. Farjon, A. In The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, pages 42386/0+. 2013.
abstract   bibtex   
[Excerpt] The very wide distribution and abundance of this species places it well beyond a category of threat. The only subspecies under threat is Pinus nigra subsp. dalmatica, which occupies a tiny part of the entire range of the species. Pinus nigra has an exceptionally disjunct natural distribution, and genotypes will undoubtedly differ markedly in some isolated subpopulations. On a regional or local scale therefore, there may well be conservation issues that are not reflected in the assessment of the species, or of its five recognized subspecies. [::Common Name(s)] [::]English - Austrian Pine, Corsican Pine, Black Pine [::]French - Pin noir [::]Spanish - Pino Nigro [::Range Description] Widespread across SW, S and SE Europe; N Algeria; N Morocco; Cyprus; Turkey; from the Krym (Crimea) in Ukraine along the Black Sea coast eastwards to Krasnodar in the Caucasus. [::Countries] Native:Albania; Algeria; Andorra; Austria; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bulgaria; Croatia; Cyprus; France (Corsica); Greece (East Aegean Is., Kriti); Italy (Sicilia); Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of; Montenegro; Morocco; Romania; Russian Federation (Krasnodar); Serbia (Kosovo, Serbia, Serbia); Slovakia; Slovenia; Spain; Turkey; Ukraine (Krym) [::Population] No declines have been recorded. [::Habitat and Ecology] The wide but fragmented (disjunct) range of~P. nigra~throughout S Europe and Turkey guarantees a diverse ecology. It is generally a lower montane species, but around the Black Sea it is found in hills. It grows on a variety of soils, from podzolic sands to limestone, often dependent on region and climate. It can form pure stands (which may have been helped by foresters), but is more commonly associated with~Pinus sylvestris~throughout its range, while regionally~P. halepensis,~P. brutia,~P. mugo,~P. pinea,~P. peuce, or~P. heldreichii~can be found with it. It is more tolerant to maritime influences like salt-laden winds than~P. sylvestris, so it often occurs closer to the sea. The geographic variation is partly ecologically determined, with subsp.~laricio~more salt tolerant than subsp.~nigra, which occurs further inland. Undergrowth in dense pine forests dominated by this species is usually sparse; more often it forms a mozaic with heathland (Erica,~Calluna,~Vaccinium), which can also be present under more open canopies after selective felling or natural disturbance. The extensive plantations and forest management of this species in Europe over several centuries have made the distinctions with natural forests less clear. [::Use and Trade] Austrian or Black Pine is an important timber tree as well as amenity tree and has been extensively planted in Europe and to a lesser extent in the USA. In Austria and the Balkans, its wood is traditionally used to build houses; modern uses include interior flooring (the stage of the Viennese State Opera House is made of this wood!) and~panelling, doors, staircases, furniture, etc. In the past there was a substantial industry based on resin tapping, but this has almost disappeared. In the Mediterranean, it is the major pine for general construction, fuelwood, pulp for paper and to make crates and pallets. Along the North Sea coast it has been used to stabilize coastal dunes, especially subsp. laricio (Corsican Pine) which is the most salt wind tolerant form of the species. The subspecies pallasiana (Crimean Pine), native in Turkey and around the Black Sea, often grows with multiple stems above a basal trunk when in cultivation in NW Europe and has attractive bark with large, light grey plates, so it was extensively planted as specimen trees in Victorian period gardens and parks in Britain. The species is also tolerant to various forms of industrial pollution (especially subsp. nigra, Austrian Pine), and in the USA in particular it is therefore popular for plantings in urban and industrial settings. There are a number of cultivars named and in the horticultural trade. [::Major Threat(s)] No range wide threats have been identified.
@incollection{farjonPinusNigraVersion2013,
  title = {Pinus Nigra - {{Version}} 2014.3},
  booktitle = {The {{IUCN Red List}} of {{Threatened Species}}},
  author = {Farjon, A.},
  year = {2013},
  pages = {42386/0+},
  abstract = {[Excerpt] The very wide distribution and abundance of this species places it well beyond a category of threat. The only subspecies under threat is Pinus nigra subsp. dalmatica, which occupies a tiny part of the entire range of the species. Pinus nigra has an exceptionally disjunct natural distribution, and genotypes will undoubtedly differ markedly in some isolated subpopulations. On a regional or local scale therefore, there may well be conservation issues that are not reflected in the assessment of the species, or of its five recognized subspecies. [::Common Name(s)] [::]English - Austrian Pine, Corsican Pine, Black Pine [::]French - Pin noir [::]Spanish - Pino Nigro [::Range Description] Widespread across SW, S and SE Europe; N Algeria; N Morocco; Cyprus; Turkey; from the Krym (Crimea) in Ukraine along the Black Sea coast eastwards to Krasnodar in the Caucasus. [::Countries] Native:Albania; Algeria; Andorra; Austria; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bulgaria; Croatia; Cyprus; France (Corsica); Greece (East Aegean Is., Kriti); Italy (Sicilia); Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of; Montenegro; Morocco; Romania; Russian Federation (Krasnodar); Serbia (Kosovo, Serbia, Serbia); Slovakia; Slovenia; Spain; Turkey; Ukraine (Krym) [::Population] No declines have been recorded. [::Habitat and Ecology] The wide but fragmented (disjunct) range of~P. nigra~throughout S Europe and Turkey guarantees a diverse ecology. It is generally a lower montane species, but around the Black Sea it is found in hills. It grows on a variety of soils, from podzolic sands to limestone, often dependent on region and climate. It can form pure stands (which may have been helped by foresters), but is more commonly associated with~Pinus sylvestris~throughout its range, while regionally~P. halepensis,~P. brutia,~P. mugo,~P. pinea,~P. peuce, or~P. heldreichii~can be found with it. It is more tolerant to maritime influences like salt-laden winds than~P. sylvestris, so it often occurs closer to the sea. The geographic variation is partly ecologically determined, with subsp.~laricio~more salt tolerant than subsp.~nigra, which occurs further inland. Undergrowth in dense pine forests dominated by this species is usually sparse; more often it forms a mozaic with heathland (Erica,~Calluna,~Vaccinium), which can also be present under more open canopies after selective felling or natural disturbance. The extensive plantations and forest management of this species in Europe over several centuries have made the distinctions with natural forests less clear. [::Use and Trade] Austrian or Black Pine is an important timber tree as well as amenity tree and has been extensively planted in Europe and to a lesser extent in the USA. In Austria and the Balkans, its wood is traditionally used to build houses; modern uses include interior flooring (the stage of the Viennese State Opera House is made of this wood!) and~panelling, doors, staircases, furniture, etc. In the past there was a substantial industry based on resin tapping, but this has almost disappeared. In the Mediterranean, it is the major pine for general construction, fuelwood, pulp for paper and to make crates and pallets. Along the North Sea coast it has been used to stabilize coastal dunes, especially subsp. laricio (Corsican Pine) which is the most salt wind tolerant form of the species. The subspecies pallasiana (Crimean Pine), native in Turkey and around the Black Sea, often grows with multiple stems above a basal trunk when in cultivation in NW Europe and has attractive bark with large, light grey plates, so it was extensively planted as specimen trees in Victorian period gardens and parks in Britain. The species is also tolerant to various forms of industrial pollution (especially subsp. nigra, Austrian Pine), and in the USA in particular it is therefore popular for plantings in urban and industrial settings. There are a number of cultivars named and in the horticultural trade. [::Major Threat(s)] No range wide threats have been identified.},
  keywords = {*imported-from-citeulike-INRMM,~INRMM-MiD:c-13621289,conservation,forest-resources,iucn,iucn-least-concern-lc,pinus-nigra},
  lccn = {INRMM-MiD:c-13621289}
}
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