Brominated and chlorinated dioxins, PCBs and brominated flame retardants in Scottish shellfish: methodology, occurrence and human dietary exposure. Fernandes, A., Dicks, P., Mortimer, D., Gem, M., Smith, F., Driffield, M., White, S., & Rose, M. Molecular nutrition & food research, 52(2):238--49, February, 2008.
Brominated and chlorinated dioxins, PCBs and brominated flame retardants in Scottish shellfish: methodology, occurrence and human dietary exposure. [link]Paper  doi  abstract   bibtex   
The most commonly consumed shellfish species produced in Scotland - mussels, oysters and scallops - were investigated for the occurrence of a range of brominated and chlorinated contaminants in order to establish current levels and estimate human dietary exposure. Flesh from individual sub-samples was representatively pooled and 35 composites were analysed for brominated and chlorinated dioxins (PBDD/Fs, PCDD/Fs), brominated and chlorinated biphenyls (PBBs, PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA). The analytical methodology used (13)C(12) labelled surrogates of the target compounds, with GC coupled to (usually) high resolution MS, and LC-MS/MS for HBCD and TBBPA analysis. Positive identifications were made in the majority of samples for most analytes with the exception of TBBPA and most PBDD congeners measured. None of the levels detected for PCDD/F and PCB were above the maximum permitted levels specified in European Union regulations. The levels of brominated furans predominated over brominated dioxins, reflecting the environmental distribution and source emission profiles of these contaminants, and relatively high levels of the tri-brominated congeners were observed. Levels of the flame retardant chemicals reflected current and legacy use, with appreciable concentrations of PBDEs and HBCDs (predominantly alpha-HBCD) but far lower levels of PBBs. TBBPA was not detected in any of the species. In general, mussels and oysters displayed relatively higher levels of contamination than scallops, although the gonad tissue of the latter showed significant levels of brominated dioxins. The estimated adult dietary intakes of PCDD/Fs and PCBs arising from the consumption of a typical portion of these foods in combination with an otherwise average UK diet were in the range 0.5-0.6 pg World Health Organisation (WHO)-toxic equivalent (TEQ)(2005)/kg bodyweight per day. These estimated dietary intakes are well within the Tolerable Daily Intake for dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs of 2 pg WHO-TEQ(2005)/kg bodyweight/day endorsed by the independent expert Committee on Toxicology of Chemicals in Food, Consumer Products and the Environment. The corresponding intakes for sumPBDEs and sumHBCDs were 5.6-6.1 and 5.9-7.9 ng/kg bodyweight/day respectively.
@article{fernandes_brominated_2008,
	title = {Brominated and chlorinated dioxins, {PCBs} and brominated flame retardants in {Scottish} shellfish: methodology, occurrence and human dietary exposure.},
	volume = {52},
	issn = {1613-4133},
	url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18186102},
	doi = {10.1002/mnfr.200700135},
	abstract = {The most commonly consumed shellfish species produced in Scotland - mussels, oysters and scallops - were investigated for the occurrence of a range of brominated and chlorinated contaminants in order to establish current levels and estimate human dietary exposure. Flesh from individual sub-samples was representatively pooled and 35 composites were analysed for brominated and chlorinated dioxins (PBDD/Fs, PCDD/Fs), brominated and chlorinated biphenyls (PBBs, PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA). The analytical methodology used (13)C(12) labelled surrogates of the target compounds, with GC coupled to (usually) high resolution MS, and LC-MS/MS for HBCD and TBBPA analysis. Positive identifications were made in the majority of samples for most analytes with the exception of TBBPA and most PBDD congeners measured. None of the levels detected for PCDD/F and PCB were above the maximum permitted levels specified in European Union regulations. The levels of brominated furans predominated over brominated dioxins, reflecting the environmental distribution and source emission profiles of these contaminants, and relatively high levels of the tri-brominated congeners were observed. Levels of the flame retardant chemicals reflected current and legacy use, with appreciable concentrations of PBDEs and HBCDs (predominantly alpha-HBCD) but far lower levels of PBBs. TBBPA was not detected in any of the species. In general, mussels and oysters displayed relatively higher levels of contamination than scallops, although the gonad tissue of the latter showed significant levels of brominated dioxins. The estimated adult dietary intakes of PCDD/Fs and PCBs arising from the consumption of a typical portion of these foods in combination with an otherwise average UK diet were in the range 0.5-0.6 pg World Health Organisation (WHO)-toxic equivalent (TEQ)(2005)/kg bodyweight per day. These estimated dietary intakes are well within the Tolerable Daily Intake for dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs of 2 pg WHO-TEQ(2005)/kg bodyweight/day endorsed by the independent expert Committee on Toxicology of Chemicals in Food, Consumer Products and the Environment. The corresponding intakes for sumPBDEs and sumHBCDs were 5.6-6.1 and 5.9-7.9 ng/kg bodyweight/day respectively.},
	number = {2},
	journal = {Molecular nutrition \& food research},
	author = {Fernandes, Alwyn and Dicks, Pamela and Mortimer, David and Gem, Martin and Smith, Frankie and Driffield, Malcolm and White, Shaun and Rose, Martin},
	month = feb,
	year = {2008},
	pmid = {18186102},
	keywords = {Animals, Brominated, Brominated: administration \& dosage, Brominated: analysis, Bromine Compounds, Chlorine Compounds, Diet, Dioxins, Dioxins: administration \& dosage, Dioxins: analysis, Flame Retardants: administration \& dosage, Flame Retardants: analysis, Flame retardants, Food Contamination, Food Contamination: analysis, Humans, Hydrocarbons, Polybrominated Biphenyls, Polybrominated Biphenyls: administration \& dosage, Polybrominated Biphenyls: analysis, Polychlorinated Biphenyls, Polychlorinated Biphenyls: administration \& dosage, Polychlorinated Biphenyls: analysis, Scotland, Shellfish, Shellfish: analysis, Water Pollutants, Water Pollutants: analysis, ffr, frbldg, frelec, waa},
	pages = {238--49}
}
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