Infection and transmission heterogeneity of a multi-host pathogen (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis) within an amphibian community. Fernandez-Beaskoetxea, S., Bosch, J., & Bielby, J. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms, 118(1):11–20, February, 2016.
doi  abstract   bibtex   
The majority of parasites infect multiple hosts. As the outcome of the infection is different in each of them, most studies of wildlife disease focus on the few species that suffer the most severe consequences. However, the role that each host plays in the persistence and trans mission of infection can be crucial to understanding the spread of a parasite and the risk it poses to the community. Current theory predicts that certain host species can modulate the infection in other species by amplifying or diluting both infection prevalence and infection intensity, both of which have implications for disease risk within those communities. The fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), the causal agent of the disease chytridiomycosis, has caused global amphibian population declines and extinctions. However, not all infected species are affected equally, and thus Bd is a good example of a multi-host pathogen that must ultimately be studied with a community approach. To test whether the common midwife toad Alytes obstetricans is a reservoir and possible amplifier of infection of other species, we used experimental approaches in captive and wild populations to determine the effect of common midwife toad larvae on infection of other amphibian species found in the Penalara Massif, Spain. We observed that the most widely and heavily infected species, the common midwife toad, may be amplifying the infection loads in other species, all of which have different degrees of susceptibility to Bd infection. Our results have important implications for performing mitigation actions focused on potential 'amplifier' hosts and for better understanding the mechanisms of Bd transmission.
@article{fernandez-beaskoetxea_infection_2016,
	title = {Infection and transmission heterogeneity of a multi-host pathogen ({Batrachochytrium} dendrobatidis) within an amphibian community},
	volume = {118},
	issn = {0177-5103},
	doi = {10/f8bxxn},
	abstract = {The majority of parasites infect multiple hosts. As the outcome of the infection is different in each of them, most studies of wildlife disease focus on the few species that suffer the most severe consequences. However, the role that each host plays in the persistence and trans mission of infection can be crucial to understanding the spread of a parasite and the risk it poses to the community. Current theory predicts that certain host species can modulate the infection in other species by amplifying or diluting both infection prevalence and infection intensity, both of which have implications for disease risk within those communities. The fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), the causal agent of the disease chytridiomycosis, has caused global amphibian population declines and extinctions. However, not all infected species are affected equally, and thus Bd is a good example of a multi-host pathogen that must ultimately be studied with a community approach. To test whether the common midwife toad Alytes obstetricans is a reservoir and possible amplifier of infection of other species, we used experimental approaches in captive and wild populations to determine the effect of common midwife toad larvae on infection of other amphibian species found in the Penalara Massif, Spain. We observed that the most widely and heavily infected species, the common midwife toad, may be amplifying the infection loads in other species, all of which have different degrees of susceptibility to Bd infection. Our results have important implications for performing mitigation actions focused on potential 'amplifier' hosts and for better understanding the mechanisms of Bd transmission.},
	language = {English},
	number = {1},
	journal = {Diseases of Aquatic Organisms},
	author = {Fernandez-Beaskoetxea, S. and Bosch, J. and Bielby, J.},
	month = feb,
	year = {2016},
	keywords = {Spain, trends, biodiversity, chytridiomycosis, declines, life-history, persistence, prevalence, disease, Alytes obstetricans, Amphibian assemblage, Chytrid fungus, extinctions, Interspecific   transmission, Penalara Massif, threats},
	pages = {11--20},
}
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