A critical survey of subnational autonomy in African states. Fessha, Y & Kirkby, C The Journal of Federalism, 38:248–271, 2008. 2
A critical survey of subnational autonomy in African states [link]Paper  abstract   bibtex   
Technical / Tactical. This article examines the quiet yet pervasive transfer of power from central governments to subnational units in Africa since the early1990s. Central governments have justified this trend by arguing it promotes one or more of three goods: democracy, development, and accommodating diversity. The authors survey six selected countries representing federal-unitary and regional differences to evaluate their degree of formal and substantive political, administrative, and financial autonomy. Transfer of powers to subnational units, the authors conclude, is a real and nearly universal trend. However, many central governments have clawed back this grant of power in numerous ways, which led to an informal recentralization of power. Moreover, central governments of federations have deliberately strengthened local government at the expense of regional autonomy.
@article{fessha_critical_2008,
	title = {A critical survey of subnational autonomy in {African} states},
	volume = {38},
	shorttitle = {A critical survey of subnational autonomy in {African} states},
	url = {http://scholar.google.co.nz/scholar?as_q=&as_epq=A-critical-survey-of-subnational-autonomy-in-African-states&as_oq=&as_eq=&as_occt=title},
	abstract = {Technical / Tactical.  This article examines the quiet yet pervasive transfer of power from central governments to subnational units in Africa since the early1990s. Central governments have justified this trend by arguing it promotes one or more of three goods: democracy, development, and accommodating diversity. The authors survey six selected countries representing federal-unitary and regional differences to evaluate their degree of formal and substantive political, administrative, and financial autonomy. Transfer of powers to subnational units, the authors conclude, is a real and nearly universal trend. However, many central governments have clawed back this grant of power in numerous ways, which led to an informal recentralization of power. Moreover, central governments of federations have deliberately strengthened local government at the expense of regional autonomy.},
	journal = {The Journal of Federalism},
	author = {Fessha, Y and Kirkby, C},
	year = {2008},
	note = {2},
	keywords = {Academic journals, Africa},
	pages = {248--271},
}
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