Do Intermediate Gaits Matter When Rapidly Accelerating?. Fisher, C.; Hubicki, C.; and Patel, A. IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters, 4(4):3418–3424, October, 2019. Conference Name: IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters
doi  abstract   bibtex   
Transient locomotion is still poorly understood in terms of planning and implementation on robotic platforms, with most research concentrated on steady-state motion. In this letter, we investigate optimal rapid acceleration (positive and negative) maneuvers of a planar numerical quadruped and biped robot. The question we ask is whether legged robots should transition through discrete, intermediate gaits (walking to trot to bound) or plan a direct transition to the top-speed gait. We present numerical evidence supporting the energetic optimality of transitioning to a desired gait without intermediate gait transitions. Trajectories were generated from rest to steady state and vice versa. Two cost functions (cost of transport and a heat-based cost function) were analyzed and compared to observations made in nature. A full 30-m trajectory was generated and compared to the acceleration and deceleration results, which further supported transitioning directly to the desired gait. All the trajectories were observed to follow a sliding mass template model which, in future, can be used as a heuristic to plan these transient maneuvers.
@article{fisher_intermediate_2019,
	title = {Do {Intermediate} {Gaits} {Matter} {When} {Rapidly} {Accelerating}?},
	volume = {4},
	issn = {2377-3766},
	doi = {10.1109/LRA.2019.2927952},
	abstract = {Transient locomotion is still poorly understood in terms of planning and implementation on robotic platforms, with most research concentrated on steady-state motion. In this letter, we investigate optimal rapid acceleration (positive and negative) maneuvers of a planar numerical quadruped and biped robot. The question we ask is whether legged robots should transition through discrete, intermediate gaits (walking to trot to bound) or plan a direct transition to the top-speed gait. We present numerical evidence supporting the energetic optimality of transitioning to a desired gait without intermediate gait transitions. Trajectories were generated from rest to steady state and vice versa. Two cost functions (cost of transport and a heat-based cost function) were analyzed and compared to observations made in nature. A full 30-m trajectory was generated and compared to the acceleration and deceleration results, which further supported transitioning directly to the desired gait. All the trajectories were observed to follow a sliding mass template model which, in future, can be used as a heuristic to plan these transient maneuvers.},
	number = {4},
	journal = {IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters},
	author = {Fisher, Callen and Hubicki, Christian and Patel, Amir},
	month = oct,
	year = {2019},
	note = {Conference Name: IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters},
	keywords = {Acceleration, Cost function, Legged locomotion, Legged robots, Steady-state, Trajectory, Transient analysis, biped robot, deceleration results, discrete gaits, gait analysis, heat-based cost function, intermediate gait, intermediate gait transitions, legged locomotion, legged robots, motion control, optimal rapid acceleration, optimization and optimal control, robot dynamics, robotic platforms, steady state, steady-state motion, top-speed gait, trajectory control, transient locomotion, transient maneuvers, under actuated robots},
	pages = {3418--3424},
}
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