Arrhythmia insensitive rapid cardiac T1 mapping pulse sequence. Fitts, M., Breton, E., Kholmovski, E., Dosdall, D., Vijayakumar, S., Hong, K., Ranjan, R., Marrouche, N., Axel, L., & Kim, D. j-MRM, 70(5):1274--1282, Nov, 2013.
  author =       "M. Fitts and E. Breton and E.G. Kholmovski and D.J.
                 Dosdall and S. Vijayakumar and K.P. Hong and R. Ranjan and
                 N.F. Marrouche and L. Axel and D. Kim",
  title =        "Arrhythmia insensitive rapid cardiac T1 mapping pulse
  journal =      j-MRM,
  year =         "2013",
  month =        "Nov",
  volume =       "70",
  number =       "5",
  pages =        "1274--1282",
  robnote =      "PURPOSE: To develop an arrhythmia-insensitive rapid (AIR)
                 cardiac T1 mapping pulse sequence for quantification of
                 diffuse fibrosis. METHODS: An arrhythmia-insensitive
                 cardiac T1 mapping pulse sequence was developed based on
                 saturation recovery T1 weighting, which is inherently
                 insensitive to heart rate and rhythm, and two single-shot
                 balanced steady-state free precession image acquisitions
                 with centric k-space ordering, where T1 calculation is
                 inherently insensitive to T2 effects. Its performance
                 against conventional cardiac T1 mapping based on inversion
                 recovery (i.e., MOLLI) is compared. Phantom experiments
                 (T1 ranging from 535 to 2123 ms) were performed with heart
                 rate and rhythm simulated at 60 and 120 beats per minute
                 (bpm) and arrhythmia using an external triggering device.
                 Ten human subjects and 17 large animals were scanned
                 precontrast and 5, 10, and 15 min after contrast agent
                 administration. RESULTS: Compared with the reference T1
                 mapping, AIR yielded lower normalized root-mean-square
                 error than MOLLI (8\% vs. 3\%, respectively, at 60 bpm,
                 28\% vs. 3\%, respectively, at 120 bpm, and 22\% vs. 3\%,
                 respectively, at arrhythmia). In vivo studies showed that
                 T1 measurements made by MOLLI and AIR were strongly
                 correlated (r = 0.99) but in poor agreement (mean
                 difference = 161.8 ms, upper and lower 95\% limits of
                 agreements = 347.5 ms and -24.0 ms). CONCLUSION: Our AIR
                 pulse sequence may be clinically useful for assessment of
                 diffuse myocardial fibrosis in patients.",
  bibdate =      "Sun May 25 06:14:09 2014",

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