TCP and Explicit Congestion Notification. Floyd, S. ACM Computer Communication Review, 24(5):10-23, October, 1994.
TCP and Explicit Congestion Notification [link]Paper  bibtex   
@article{ Floyd94,
  author = {S. Floyd},
  title = {{TCP} and Explicit Congestion Notification},
  journal = {ACM Computer Communication Review},
  year = {1994},
  volume = {24},
  number = {5},
  pages = {10-23},
  month = {October},
  annote = {This is one of the first papers discussing Explicit Congestion Notification, ECN. ECN only prescribes a way to unambiguously signal congestion to the sender. To be of any use it has to be combined with a mechanism to detect the congestion in the first place. Two mechanisms are presented in this paper. In the DECbit scheme, the queue sizes at the gateways are monitored. When their sizes exceed one, they start setting the ECN bit in the packet header of arriving packets. The other scheme is RED, Random Early Detection, where the probability of setting the ECN bit increases as the buffer queue builds up. Simulations of ECN in LAN and WAN environments show that ECN can improve both delay and throughput. It seems as if the improvements are more obvious in LANs. ECN also alleviates the effects of coarse clock granularities.},
  url = {papers/},
  submitter = {Karl-Johan Grinnemo},
  bibdate = {Tuesday, May 30, 2000 at 08:08:30 (MEST)}

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