Unintentional indium incorporation into barriers of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells studied by photoreflectance and photoluminescence. Freytag, S, Feneberg, M, Berger, C, Bläsing, J, Dadgar, A, Callsen, G, Nippert, F, Hoffmann, A, Bokov, P., & Goldhahn, R Journal of Applied Physics, 120(3):015703, 2016.
doi  abstract   bibtex   
$In_xGa_{1-x}N/GaN$ single and multi quantum well (MQW) structures with x $\approx$ 0.13 were investigated optically by photoreflectance, photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy, and luminescence. Clear evidence of unintentional indium incorporation into the nominal GaN barrier layers is found. The unintentional In content is found to be around 3%. Inhomogeneous distribution of In atoms occurs within the distinct quantum well (QW) layers, which is commonly described as statistical alloy fluctuation and leads to the characteristic S-shape temperature shift of emission energy. Furthermore, differences in emission energy between the first and the other QWs of a MQW stack are found experimentally. This effect is discussed with the help of model calculations and is assigned to differences in the confining potential due to unwanted indium incorporation for the upper QWs.
@article{Freytag2016,
  title={Unintentional indium incorporation into barriers of {InGaN/GaN} multiple quantum wells studied by photoreflectance and photoluminescence},
  author={Freytag, S and Feneberg, M and Berger, C and Bl{\"a}sing, J and Dadgar, A and Callsen, G and Nippert, F and Hoffmann, A and Bokov, PY and Goldhahn, R},
   journal = "Journal of Applied Physics",
   year = "2016",
   volume = "120",
   number = "3", 
   pages = 015703,
   doi = {10.1063/1.4955426},
   abstract = {$In_xGa_{1-x}N/GaN$ single and multi quantum well (MQW) structures with x $\approx$ 0.13 were investigated optically by photoreflectance, photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy, and luminescence. Clear evidence of unintentional indium incorporation into the nominal GaN barrier layers is found. The unintentional In content is found to be around 3\%. Inhomogeneous distribution of In atoms occurs within the distinct quantum well (QW) layers, which is commonly described as statistical alloy fluctuation and leads to the characteristic S-shape temperature shift of emission energy. Furthermore, differences in emission energy between the first and the other QWs of a MQW stack are found experimentally. This effect is discussed with the help of model calculations and is assigned to differences in the confining potential due to unwanted indium incorporation for the upper QWs.}
}

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